الفصل الأول: مقدمة: الجوانب المتعدِّدة لعلم النفس والأوجُه الكثيرة للأفلام
(2)Diamond, Wrye and Sabbadini (2007) point out that when Freud published his first significant work, Studies in Hysteria in 1895 (co-authored with Josef Breuer), the Lumiere brothers were screening what is widely considered to be the first nonfiction film, Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory. The scientific-minded American Psychological Association had been founded a few years earlier in 1892 (Wertheimer, 1987).
(3)Freud’s appearance at Clark left an aura that pervaded even the physical space. Many of us were convinced that the reason the university never remodeled the worn wooden staircase was because Freud had made the stairs sacred by setting foot on them.
(5)Many of the professors at Clark at that time had been mentored by Werner, including Bernard Kaplan, Leonard Cirillo, Roger Bibace, Seymour Wapner, Robert Baker, and the neuropsychologist Edith Kaplan. Other Clark professors who influenced my thinking were socioculturalists James Wertsch and James Gee and narrativists Michael Bamberg and Nancy Budwig.
(6)Kristen and Dine Young (2009).
(7)Amateur short films are becoming much more available, thanks to digital cameras and YouTube. Even as I write, my children are collaborating with neighborhood kids to make their own movie. Perhaps in another decade someone will write a book on The Psychology of YouTube.
(8)Wade and Tavris (2005) define psychology as “the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state and external environment” (p. 3).
(9)Method has strong religious connotations, deriving from the Greek root methodos, meaning “the way.” The derivation calls to mind Jesus’ proclamation, “I am the way, the truth and the life” (John 14:6). Psychologists have been known to be almost as serious about their methods.
(10)Interestingly, the only book on psychology and the movies as freeranging as Gladwell’s approach is Munsterberg’s 1916 work which mixes history, technology, experimental psychology, textual interpretation, aesthetic philosophy and imaginative speculation.
(11)Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001).
(12)Another effective way of making this point is John Saxe’s poem The Blind Men and the Elephant in which several blind men investigate an isolated body part (tusk, trunk, ear, etc.) of an elephant and come to erroneous conclusions about the nature of an elephant (concluding it is a spear, snake, fan, etc.). This poem is used by Tavris and Wade in their novel textbook, Psychology in Perspective, which introduces the field of psychology in a more cohesive manner.
(13)The symbolic framework presented here is a simplification of the model presented by Werner and Kaplan (1984) in Symbol Formation. They draw their perspective, in part, from the symbolic philosophy of Ernst Cassirer (1955–1957) and the rhetorical method of Kenneth Burke (1973). Symbolization, as understood by Werner and Kaplan, is as amenable to literary interpretation as it is to experimentation.
(14)Since most of the examples used in this book refer to how visual and linguistic symbols are embedded in stories, narrative theory (i.e., theories about how stories are constructed and how they are received by listeners/viewers) pops up with some regularity. This theme is central in Chapter 9 in which parallels are made between stories in movies and stories in identity construction (McAdams, 1993).
(15)The fact that symbols have more than one level of meaning is taken by numerous writers, including Carl Jung (1964) and Paul Ricoeur (1970) in his study of Freud, as the defining aspect of symbolization.
(16)Even if a small, independent film reaches “only” a few thousand viewers, it is still a significant social event, especially if a passionate “cult” audience becomes strongly attached to it.
(17)These symbolic events are psychological both because interpretations comment on human nature (e.g., how people displace unacceptable tendencies like aggression on to acceptable actions such as heroism) and because the transformation between a symbolic object and its meaning requires thought (i.e., mental activity or cognitive processing).
الفصل الثاني: البحث عن معنًى: التفسيرات السيكولوجية في الأفلام
(6)The open-ended use of “text” as an underlying narrative runs counter to the everyday definition of text as something written (as in a “textbook”), but going with the convention in literary, film and rhetorical studies, I sometimes refer to films as “texts.”
(7)Kracauer (1960) and Bazin (1967) are commonly associated with championing film as an exercise in realism; this attitude found expression in Italian neo-realism (Rome, Open City) and cinema verité (Don’t Look Back). Andrew (1976) asserts that realism ran counter to the earliest trends in film criticism that highlighted films for their dreamlike qualities exemplified by German expressionism (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari) and surrealism (Un Chien Andalou). Many modern studies of film in both psychology (Packer, 2007) and philosophy (McGinn, 2005) continue to emphasize film as dream.
(8)Bordwell (1989a) steps outside particular theoretical frameworks to cogently explicate the general process that all interpreters use to make meaning out of films.
(9)The most prominent interpretive approaches in the early history of film are reviewed by Andrew (1976). Casetti (1999) continues the task of reviewing film theory through 1995.
(10)There are many possibilities for types of behavior (e.g., farming, flying airplanes) and types of people (e.g., private detectives, butlers) that could receive attention from social scientists but have not. Psychotherapy and mental illness, however, have been the topics of so much special interest, I consider them in detail in Chapter 3.
(11)How movies impact the attitudes of audiences is considered in more detail in Chapter 8.
(13)See Krippendorff (2003) for an overview of content analysis methods.
(14)The interpretations of clever critics are discussed later in this chapter. Such critics are typically unimpressed by content analyses since content analytic categories have to be stated in a way that everybody can understand. The joke goes that they need to be so obvious, they could be identified by trained monkeys (or graduate students, whichever are available). The virtues of critics—cleverness, subtlety, and originality—may become liabilities when it comes to content analyses.
(15)It is not an accident that these topics correspond to the social concerns of recent decades. Despite occasional claims of neutrality, the social sciences do indeed swim in the cultural stream, either as reflections or agents of change. The topics that receive attention in this chapter have also been studied for their effects on audience members considered in Chapter 8.
(16)Wilson et al. (2002).
(17)Mean Girls is partly based on Queen Bees and Wannabes, Rosalind Wiseman’s nonfiction self-help book about adolescent female cliques, which itself draws on research on relational aggression by developmental psychologists such as Nicki Crick (2002).
(18)Coyne and Whitehead (2008).
(20)See Gunter (2002) for review of research on sexual content in media.
(21)Cowan et al. (1988).
(22)An original content analysis by Molitor and Sapolsky (1993) was followed by a critique by Linz and Donnerstein (1994) and then a rebuttal by Molitor and Sapolsky (1994).
(24)See Sarafino (2008) for summary.
(25)Glantz and Kacirk (2004).
(26)Hazan, Lipton, and Glantz (1994).
(27)Ricoeur (1974: pp. 12-13).
(28)Ricoeur (1974: p. 99).
(29)Examples of the numerous book-length studies that use traditional psychodynamic theory to analyze film include Greenberg (1975; 1993) and Indick (2004); many other interpretations have appeared in journals like Psychoanalytic Review and The International Journal of Psychoanalysis. In addition, semiotic and post-modern variations of Freudian theory are discussed in the “Spectatorship” section of this chapter.
(30)There are periodic attempts to declare Freudian theory dead. Literary critic Frederick Crews’ (1995) sharp dismissal of the scientific validity of psychoanalysis was at the center of a 1990s debate known as the Freud Wars (see Forrester, 1998 for a defense of Freud). Despite such battles, Freudian theory continues to thrive in the humanities, and modern variations of psychoanalysis remain a powerful force in mental health treatment, with some psychologists and psychiatrists arguing that crucial elements of Freud’s approach are validated by both research on effective psychotherapy (Shedler, 2010) and modern neuroscience (Schore, 2003).
(31)See Hall’s A Primer of Freudian Psychology (1999) as a classic summary of Freudian theory.
(32)Freud (1960b: p. 58).
(33)Psychodynamic is a broad term that covers Freud’s original psychoanalysis and the many spin-off theories that came later.
(35)Greenberg (1975: p. 14).
(37)When it comes to Stanley Kubrick, one can never be sure what was intended. One of my professors warned us never to underestimate Kubrick’s attention to detail since the only thing more obsessively conceived than one of his films was big-time advertising.
(38)Modern cognitive science has a mixed view of the psychoanalytic contention that people unconsciously perceive every aspect of their environment. On one hand, there is evidence that the mind is highly selective about what information it processes and remembers. At the same time, people do process and react to certain environmental stimuli which they cannot consciously identify, although there is no evidence that these “subliminal” stimuli are actually having an effect on behavior (see Chapter 8).
(39)Hill (1992) and Iaccino (1998) provide traditional Jungian analyses of a range of movies while Singh (2009) explores “post-Jungian” approaches to film criticism.
(40)The best summary of Jungian theory is the succinct overview he wrote just prior to his death, Man and His Symbols (1964).
(41)Jung’s theory has often been accused of being mystical. One of Jung’s (1969: pp. 43-44) most compelling responses to this criticism is an analogy he makes to instincts. He points out that the existence of inborn instincts—simple patterns of behavior that are not learned but crucial to survival (e.g., the rooting reflex in which newborns turn their heads and suck when their cheeks are lightly stroked)—are not controversial. He claims that the archetypes are merely patterns of thought that give people templates for making sense out of a complicated world.
(42)Star Wars is a clear example of Jungian theory because George Lucas was explicitly inspired by the prominent mythologist Joseph Campbell (1968), whose approach to mythology is grounded in Jungian theory. Lucas says, “It was very eerie because in reading The Hero with a Thousand Faces I began to realize that my first draft of Star Wars was following classic motifs … so I modified my next draft according to what I’d been learning about classical motifs and made it a little bit more consistent” (Larsen and Larsen, 2002: p. 541).
(45)Ricoeur (1974: p. 99).
(46)Ray (1985: p. 14), quoting Althusser (1977).
(47)Many of the critical topics related to cultural psychology are reviewed in Cole (1996).
(48)The ideological approach of Louis Althusser had a significant impact on the foundation of cultural studies. Storey (2009) provides an introduction to cultural studies while Ryan (2008) has edited a comprehensive anthology of significant contributions to the field.
(49)See Fiske (1989) for a prominent example.
(50)Haskell (1973: pp. 327-328).
(51)Ray (1985: p. 57).
(52)See Andrew (1976) and Casetti (1999) for reviews of the history of film theory.
(53)Metz integrated his previous work on semiotics, Film Language (1974), with psychoanalysis in the highly influential, The Imaginary Signifier (1982). Other psychoanalytic interpretations in film studies are compiled by Kaplan (1990). More recent approaches to Lacanian interpretation can be found in McGowan and Kunkle (2004).
(54)Greenberg (1993: p. 5), a practicing psychoanalyst, recounts a humbling experience he had at a conference where his traditional psychoanalytic reading of a film got a cool reception from the film scholars in the audience. In contrast, great excitement was created by a hyperclose Lacanian reading of 20 seconds of a Marlene Dietrich movie that “discovered” sexual hostility in an edit between seemingly unrelated scenes. In the first scene, a gun was fired off screen; if one followed the hypothetical trajectory of the bullet into the next scene (in a completely separate space), it would presumably hit a male character squarely in the crotch.
(55)This difficulty may be intentional. Depending on who you ask, the complexity is either a reflection of the unstable nature of knowledge, or it is a neo-elitist tactic designed to aggravate concrete-minded Philistines (e.g., most Americans).
(56)Postmodern philosophy and criticism are associated with Jacques Derrida, Michael Foucault, Richard Rorty, and many others.
(57)Summarized from Casetti’s (1999) analysis of Metz’s concepts of identification, voyeurism, and fetishism.
(60)The phallocentric nature of mainstream film parallels Haskell’s argument except that Mulvey (1986) is more concerned with the mechanisms of film, not just the content of film.
(61)Other authors such as Modleski (1988) argue that Hitchcock films intentionally create discomfort in the audience by self-consciously manipulating the power differentials Mulvey discusses. The significance of Vertigo to Hitchcock himself is discussed in Chapter 4.
(62)The “text only” approach to criticism is associated with the New Criticism. Classic essays have recently been anthologized by Davis (2008).
(63)The implied viewer is a spin on the implied reader, a term coined by Iser (1974).
(64)The danger of too many possible criticisms has been made within film studies itself. After analyzing the process of film interpretation at its most abstract, Bordwell (1989a) expresses a weariness for the seemingly endless interpretations that litter his field. He demonstrates this point by juxtaposing seven separate critical interpretations of Psycho, arguing that while all are reasonable, the benefit of having this many different readings lying around is unclear.
(65)The tension between the desire for absolute interpretations of movies and relativistic “eye of the beholder” approaches are in sharp relief on internet discussion boards like those on IMDB.com. Many criticisms are expressed that take the form “This film sucks and anybody who thinks otherwise is an idiot”; these criticisms are then inevitably followed by pleas for tolerance because “everyone is entitled to his or her opinion.”
(66)Bruner was a major figure in the “cognitive revolution” in the 1960s in which strict behaviorism was supplanted by cognitive approaches that allowed for the exploration of mental concepts like memory and imagination. Later in his career, Bruner found that cognitive psychology had become narrower and more constricted than he intended, and he wrote two influential books, Actual Minds, Possible Worlds (1986) and Acts of Meaning (1990), which argue for a merging of methodologies between the humanities and the social sciences.
(67)Bruner (1990: p. 2).
(68)Bruner (1986: p. 13).
الفصل الثالث: علم الأمراض النفسية، والعلاج النفسي، وفيلم «سايكو»: علماء النفس ومرضاهم في الأفلام
(1)Camp, et al. (2010).
(2)Fleming and Manvell (1985), a psychologist and a film historian, offer a thematic analysis of representations of insanity. Zimmerman (2003) takes a literary perspective to demonstrate the relative sensitivity of certain films. Robinson (2003) and Wedding, Boyd, and Niemiec (2010) use formal diagnostic criteria argue that some films are useful in teaching students about mental illness (discussed further in Chapter 9). Some authors have focused on mental illness in films for children, especially Disney films (Wahl, et al., 2003; and Lawson and Fouts, 2004). All contain extensive lists of films depicting mental illness.
(3)I use “psychological disorder” as an approximate synonym for “psychiatric disorders,” “behavior disorders,” “abnormal psychology,” “mental illness,” and “psychopathology.” Terms like “mad,” “crazy” or “loony” are more informal, dramatic and pejorative. In one way or another, they all suggest problems in behavior and thinking that prevent people from functioning to their fullest capacity.
(4)Camp, et al. (2010; p. 148).
(5)The image does call to mind serial killer, John Wayne Gacy, but Gacy acted alone and was not the head of a crime syndicate.
(6)Fifty years after its release, Psycho holds upmoderately well as a thriller, but it was when I realized Hitchcock thought of it as a comedy (Truffaut, 1985: pp. 200–202) that I realized its true genius.
(7)DID is an official diagnosis in current psychiatric nomenclature (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). However, it is controversial, and some professionals do not believe it exists in the extreme form of people developing distinct “personalities.”
(8)Believing that an inanimate object is possessed with sentience is a delusion while seeing a dead body talk is a hallucination. Both are common symptoms of schizophrenia, not DID. Students often confuse DID (which is very rare) with schizophrenia (which is common). Psycho is at least partially to blame for this confusion.
(9)The film is based on the book Psycho, by Robert Bloch (1989). Bloch based his story on the serial killer, Ed Gein, who lived on an isolated farm in Wisconsin in the 1950s where he killed and dismembered at least 10 women. This case is also the inspiration for the horror classics The Texas Chainsaw Massacre and The Silence of the Lambs.
(10)As documented in Rebello’s fascinatingly detailed, Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho (1990).
(11)Truffaut (1985: p. 269).
(12)Hyler, Gabbard, and Schneider (1991). A few recent examples have been added.
(13)While still used in everyday language, nymphomania has not been a formal diagnostic category for decades.
(14)Some filmmakers have actually hired professional consultants to insure that their depictions are realistic—e.g., the psychological aspects of imprisonment and brutality in Midnight Express (Farber and Green, 1993).
(15)Additional examples of accurate portrayals are provided in Robinson (2009).
(16)The DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is the diagnostic reference used by most mental health providers in the US. It contains 16 major diagnostic classes, but a system of subclassification can lead to hundreds of distinct diagnoses. The major classifications that are most common in cinematic depictions include psychotic disorders (schizophrenia), mood disorders (depression and bipolar), anxiety disorders (post-traumatic stress disorder), personality disorders (narcissism and paranoia), dissociative disorders (dissociative identity disorder), and substance-related disorders.
(17)The primary criticism is that the film suggests that Nash managed his symptoms without medication which is not consistent with the account in the biography, A Beautiful Mind (Nasar, 2001).
(18)Greenberg (2003) notes that visual hallucinations (Nash’s imaginary roommate) are relatively rare when compared to auditory hallucinations (hearing voices), but of course, movies always prefer to show things.
(19)See also Brandell (2004), Rabkin (1998), and Walker (1993).
(20)Rabkin (1998) offers detailed information about thousands of psych related movies.
(21)I use psychotherapy and counseling as synonyms, and I use psychologist or mental health professional as shorthand for anybody who works with people to solve interpersonal and emotional problems. There are differences between forms of treatment (psychoanalysis versus psychotherapy) and disciplines (psychology versus psychiatry) although many people are confused by these differences. In part, the inconsistent and inaccurate use of these terms in the movies is responsible for the confusion.
(22)There are exceptions. Psycho was released at heart of the Golden Age yet its depiction of Dr Richman is a parody of psychiatric mumbo jumbo.
(23)In addition to Drs Dippy, Evil and Wonderful described by Schneider (1987), other categories have been advanced by Orchowski, Spickard, and McNamara (2006) and Winick (1978).
(24)Orchowski, Spickard, and McNamara (2006).
(25)Pirkis, et al. (2006).
(28)Gabbard (2001) and Schultz (2005).
(29)Bischoff and Reiter (1999) and Dine Young, et al. (2008).
(30)Dr Melfi from the Sopranos was another prominent female therapist that struggled with her attraction to her mobster client although she uncharacteristically resisted temptation.
(31)Some passages in the section have been taken verbatim from Dine Young, et al. (2008).
(33)Pope and Vasquez (1998).
(34)Edelson (1993: p. 311).
(35)Lambert and Bergin (1994).
(37)McDonald and Walter (2009) document the almost universally negative portrayal of ECT despite the fact that modern techniques have minimal side effects and have been shown to be an effective treatment for some cases of severe depression.
(38)Movies and television make it appear that psychological profilers are a substantial professional group when in actuality, there are very few outside of the FBI. I have disillusioned numerous entering college students with this unfortunate fact.
(39)The impact of movies on viewers in general is the subject of Chapters 8 and 9.
(42)Kondo (2008: pp. 250-251).
(43)Pirkis, et al. (2006).
(44)Granello, et al. (1999).
(47)Fleming and Manvell (1985: p. 17).
(48)Sullivan (1953: p. 32). I always start my class in abnormal psychology with this quote in order to diminish the tendency of students to approach the topic in a “disorder of the week” manner.
(49)Gender is a good example of similarity getting lost in diversity. While there are some notable differences between men and women, across many psychological dimensions the genders are very similar (Hyde, 2005). These similarities are often overshadowed in such popular tomes as Gray’s mega-selling: Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus.
(50)Werner (1980). I use the term here in a broad way that simply suggests that two domains of human action are similar in at least one important dimension (although in other ways they may be substantially different).
(53)Gabbard (2001); Eber and O’Brien (1982); Ringel (2004).
(54)Jamieson, Romer, and Jamieson (2006).
(55)Schill, Harsch, and Ritter (1990).
(56)Dine Young, et al. (2008).
(57)Edelson (1993: p. 307).
(60)The use of film to teach psychology and pass along life lessons is further explored in Chapter 9.
الفصل الرابع: العبقري المجنون: التكوين النفسي لصنَّاع الأفلام
(2)Lax (2000: p. 397).
(4)See Schultz (2005) and Elms (1994) for overviews of psychobiography. Both authors point out that as psychology has established itself as an experimental science, the method has been marginalized. Lives are too big to fit into laboratories (even the ones at large universities). Early psychologists like William James thought that the study of lives could exist side by side with experimental approaches. Gordon Allport (1965) advocated case studies as a way to balance statistical generalization. He observed that it might be useful for a man to have a general understanding of what most women like when shopping for his wife, but that he was better off knowing his wife’s personal preferences (p. 159).
(6)See Schultz (2005) for chapters on these and other artists.
(8)Examples of projective tests include the Thematic Apperception Test (test-takers tell stories in response to a picture) and the Kinetic Family Drawing Test (test-takers draw their families in action).
(9)There are a few exceptions such as a biography of Charlie Chaplin written by a psychiatrist (Weissman, 2008).
(11)While many directors (Scorsese, Tarantino, Polanski, etc.) have adopted the Hitchcockian trick of popping up in their own movies, these appearances don’t generate as much excitement.
(12)Spoto (1983: p. x).
(13)Spoto (1983: p. 9). There is some question whether the event actually happened. Spoto declares that he was unable to find evidence to confirm it or refute it (p. 16).
(14)Spoto (1983: p. 36).
(15)Spoto (1983: p. 37).
(16)Spoto (1983: p. 65).
(17)Spoto (1983: p. 343).
(18)Spoto (1983: p. 387).
(19)LoBrutto (2008: p. 32).
(20)Keyser (1992: p. 7).
(21)LoBrutto (2008: p. 33).
(22)Quoted in Keyser (1992: p. 10).
(23)Cohen-Shalev and Raz (2008).
(24)Cohen-Shalev and Raz (2008: p. 36).
(25)Dyer (1998: p. 43).
(26)McGilligan (1994: pp. 42–47).
(27)McGilligan (1994: pp. 262–264).
(28)McGilligan (1994: p. 263).
(29)McGilligan (1994: pp. 51-52).
(30)Morton (2010: p. 105).
(31)Morton (2010: pp. 108-109) attributes these quotes to Franziska De George and Iris Martin respectively but does not provide a context for how these professional opinions were acquired, opening up the possibility they were interpreted out of context.
(32)This saying is associated with Gestalt psychology, a school of psychology that focused on sensation and perception.
(33)Bertolucci, Shaw, and Mawson (2003: p. 20).
(34)Bertolucci, Shaw, and Mawson (2003: p. 25).
(35)Quoted in Bertolucci, Shaw, and Mawson (2003: p. 28).
(37)Recent developments in method acting are summarized in Krasner (2000). Method acting has made the psychobiography of actors easier since such actors self-consciously access aspects of themselves in playing their roles.
(39)Farber and Green (1993: p. 21).
(40)Farber and Green (1993: p. 80).
(41)Farber and Green (1993: p. 311).
(42)For me, Allen’s presentation of psychotherapy in his movies seemed at once cautionary and intriguing. Growing up in a rural town, I watched Annie Hall and Manhattan repeatedly on cable. Woody’s New York seemed an alternative universe in which people spent their days browsing bookstores, pursuing romance, and going to therapy. As an undergraduate, I went to New York to interview for graduate school with a genuine psychoanalyst. I waited while he argued with his secretary about whether I actually had an appointment. After an awkward interview during which he glared at me, I made my way downstairs to find that my car had been towed. I wasn’t accepted by the school, and my Woody wannabe days were over.
(43)Lax (2000: p. 79) and Baxter (1999: p. 73).
(44)Farber and Green (1993: p. 192).
(45)Cohen (2004) and Philaretou (2006).
(47)Based on these criteria, none of the biographical sketches presented here should be considered definitive. My examples are meant to capture certain tendencies in psychobiography but are not complete and accurate pictures of the complicated lives of the filmmakers. The full biographies I draw upon for my summaries are more detailed, yet it is an open question as to whether they are accurate, coherent and consistent.
(48)Spoto (1983: p. 36).
(50)Schultz (2005: p. 10).
(51)Seligman and Csikzentmihalyi (2000).
(53)Rothenberg (1990: p. 6).
(54)Nettle (2001: p. 145).
(55)Freud (1959) emphasized the unconscious desires of storytellers, but filmmakers often seem aware of the personal significance of their movies. Consciousness and unconsciousness are not discrete states but exist on a continuum and are therefore a matter of degree.
الفصل الخامس: الجمهور: الأنماط السيكولوجية لروَّاد دُور العَرْض السينمائية
(1)Zillmann and Bryant (1985).
(3)Austin (1989: pp. 35-36). These attendance figures don’t necessarily refer to the number of different individuals who attend a movie since some may have attended more than one movie a week.
(4)Television Facts and Statistics (n.d.).
(5)Austin (1989: p. 36).
(6)Austin (1989: p. 40).
(7)Austin (1989: pp. 87–92).
(9)Krugman and Johnson (1991).
(10)Yearly Box Office (2011).
(11)On an individual level, psychologists occasionally use reading or viewing tastes as a measure of personality. It seems likely that someone who watches only horror movies will be different from someone else who chooses to watch only romantic comedies. This chapter focuses on general trends in movie viewing. A closer look at movie enjoyment is considered in later chapters, particularly Chapter 7.
(12)Lists of box office champs as well as other movies lists are available at www.filmsite.org. The list I am using has been adjusted for inflation and is therefore historically balanced. Movie admissions in 1939 when Gone with the Wind was released were much cheaper than a 3D showing of Avatar in 2009. This explains why Avatar, though the highest grossing movie of all time, is ranked below blockbusters from different economic eras such as Titanic, The Sound of Music, and Gone with the Wind.
(13)To the extent that I am a representative movie fan, I have seen 45 of the 50 films and am generally familiar with every movie on the list except The Robe.
(14)Dean Simonton (2011) has compiled a large database of box office performance, awards, critics’ ratings and other publicly available information.
(15)Simonton (2011: pp. 53–78).
(16)Simonton (2011: p. 82).
(17)Simonton (2011: p. 102).
(18)McIntosh, et al. (2003).
(20)Roberts and Foehr (2004).
(21)Worth et al. (2008).
(22)The effects of film are discussed in detail in Chapter 8.
(23)See Pritzker (2009) for example.
(25)Retrieved from the American Film Institute’s website at www.afi.com/100years/movies10.aspx. AFI is an association of filmmakers, producers and critics who, according to their website, are dedicated to film preservation and educational activities.
(26)Accessed from the Internet Movie Database at www.imdb.com/chart/top on April 1, 2011.
(27)Another difference is the handful of foreign films (e.g., Seven Samurai) on the IMDB list; AFI only ranks American movies.
(28)Compared to the exclusive selection process for members of the American Film Institute, IMDB allows access to anyone who is online. Still, there is a strong element of self-selection, as individuals must choose not only to use the site but also its rating function.
(29)Fischoff, et al. (2002-2003).
(30)This survey was conducted in the early 2000s before the Twilight craze. Therefore, the results aren’t confounded by this massively successful book/movie series. However, its findings may have anticipated the neovampire craze of the new millennium.
(31)Banerjee, et al. (2008).
(32)Lincoln and Allen (2004).
(33)Thinking about movie viewing in terms of “before, during, and after” establishes a cyclical process. If someone goes to a movie and has an experience which they evaluate as positive, they will likely develop a preference for a particular genre or actor and seek to reproduce it in subsequent movie choices.
الفصل السادس: اللحظة السينمائية: المشاعر واستيعاب الأفلام
(1)This figure is a variation of Figure 1-3 inspired by Werner and Kaplan (1984). The symbol is the film, and the “referent” is divided up into multiple of levels of “images and sound” and “story.” It is important that the arrows go both ways. My example starts with perceptual details and move toward the overarching story; this approach has been described as “bottom-up” processing. However, viewers come to films with expectations about how stories work that impact the perceptual elements they pay attention to; this is “top-down” processing. Humans appear to engage in both types of processing simultaneously.
(2)Classical Hollywood style is surveyed in Bordwell, Staiger, and Thompson (1985).
(3)Cognitive psychology is an important sub-discipline of psychology and is summarized in numerous textbooks such as Sternberg and Sternberg (2011). Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field that includes psychology, biology, computer science and philosophy. Neuroscience focuses on how the functioning of the brain and the rest of the nervous system impacts thinking and behavior.
(4)Bordwell (1985; 1989a; 1989b), heavily influenced by early psychological studies of film by Munsterberg (1970) and Arnheim (1957), has written several seminal texts outlining a cognitive approach to narrative comprehension of film. Turner (1996) has made a similar case in regard to literature. Other early proponents of the cognitive turn in film studies include Noel Carroll (1988) and Edward Branigan (1992).
(5)Grodal (1997), Tan (1996) and Plantinga (2009) are example of cognitive-based theories of film comprehension and emotion. Hogan (2003) provides an accessible overview of cognitive approaches in literature, film and art. Bordwell and Carroll (1996), and Plantinga and Smith (1999) compile a variety of essays on film that take cognitivism (as opposed to Lacanian interpretation) as their starting point.
(6)See Anderson (1998) and Hochberg (1989) for overviews of film perception.
(7)Anderson (1998: pp. 54–61).
(8)Anderson (1998: pp. 99–101).
(10)While most scholars agree that there is an interaction between cultural influence and innate endowment, the relative contribution of these factors remains controversial in all areas of the social sciences.
(12)Chatman (1978) makes a similar distinction between story and discourse, while Bordwell (1985) borrows terms from Russian literary theory: fabula (story) and syuzhet (plot).
(13)Bordwell (1989a: p. 49).
(14)The way people are able to take the concept of “dog” and apply it to a variety of objects in the world is an example of a simple linguistic schema. A physicist’s understanding of atomic structure is a more complicated schema.
(16)The state of modern emotion research is surveyed in Lewis, Haviland-Jones, and Barrett’s (2008) edited volume.
(17)Grodal (1997) and Plantinga (2009).
(19)Mauss, et al. (2005) reported that behavioral, self-report, and physiological responses tend to be modestly correlated, supporting a connection between body, consciousness, and behavior.
(20)See Mauss, et al. (2005) and Hoffner and Cantor (1991) for examples using adults and children respectively.
(21)Mauss, et al. (2005).
(22)Tomarken, Davidson, and Henriques (1990).
(23)Hubert and de Jong-Meyer (1991).
(24)Laan, et al. (1994) and Koukounas and Over (1997). Methods that involve contact between genitalia and laboratory equipment typically provoke giggles from my students, and indeed they are among the most intrusive social science methods. However, for ethical purposes, studies of human sexuality usually involve thorough education of participants before they make an informed decision to participate.
(25)Rottenberg, Ray, and Gross (2007).
(26)Yes, there are even hardened souls out there who would mock The Champ or laugh at Silence of the Lambs.
(27)Holland (1989). There is some question as to whether the audience exposure part of the Kuleshov experiment was ever actually conducted or whether Pudovkin extrapolated from his own introspective observations. The experiment has been a reference point in film theory and provides a simple example of how an experiment in editing can be accomplished. I predict that Pudovkin and Kuleshov’s hypothesis would stand up today.
(28)This observation is consistent with Lacanian psychoanalysis’ claims that spectators “suture” juxtaposed scenes together.
(30)This pattern is often summarized in introductory film text books such as Barsam and Monahan (2010).
(32)Schank and Abelson (1977).
(33)Pouliot and Cowen (2007).
(35)Summarized from Carroll (1999: pp. 35–46).
(36)This idea is closely related to Jung’s archetypes discussed in Ch. 2 although the two concepts emerged from different theoretical traditions.
(38)Identification is a crucial issue in film theory, psychology and psychoanalysis. Similar terms include “involvement,” “engagement,” and “participation.” Grodal (1997) reviews some of the important variations of identification as used in film studies. While most of these subtleties are not relevant here, the nature of identification (in regard to type, intensity, and duration) can impact the effect of film on viewers discussed in Chapters 8 and 9.
(40)Summarized from Plantinga’s (1999) application of Paul Ekman’s (2007) theory of universal facial expressions.
(41)Anderson, et al. (2006: p. 7).
(42)Summarized from Hogan (2003: pp. 174–179).
(43)Major theories of psychological interpretation are overviewed in Chapter 2.
(45)The tendency to isolate discrete processes is comparable to the tendency of medicine to divide up the body in various subsystems.
(46)Hogan (2003: p. 3).
الفصل السابع: تأمُّل الشاشة: تلقِّي الأفلام
(1)Ebert (1986: pp. 173-174).
(2)Kael (1976: pp. 247–251).
(3)Thank you, Mom and Dad.
(4)I didn’t take the film entirely seriously. At a high school debate camp held in Georgetown, we amused ourselves by holding races up and down the infamous Exorcist stairs.
(5)Some student reactions hardly reflect the film’s reputation: “How could people ever have thought that was scary?,” “I laughed during the exorcism scenes,” and “That’s nothing compared to Hostel.”
(6)Kenneth Burke (1984) has noted that all living things are critics, using a trout’s dilemma of whether or not to take the bait as a metaphor for the people, places and things that we either pursue or avoid.
(7)Viewer preferences for types are considered in Chapter 5.
(8)The psychology of entertainment is surveyed in edited volumes by Bryant and Vorderer (2006) and Zillmann and Vorderer (2000).
(9)See discussion of emotions and comprehension in Chapter 6.
(13)Critics argue that many modern action movies are indeed random expressions of violence. Yet not all movies with explosions and gunfire are successful, leading to the probability that even action films draw something from character and plot.
(14)Dispositional theory is reviewed in Zillmann (2011).
(16)See Weaver and Tamborini (1996) for overview of research on horror.
(17)Tamborini and Stiff (1987).
(18)The Alien series has a third and fourth installment, but they weren’t financially or critically successful. The fact that they do not end well is consistent with my point.
(19)The tendency of the virgin female characters to survive while sexually active female characters are killed is discussed in Chapter 2.
(22)Oliver and Woolley (2011).
(23)It is possible to see evaluation as a subtype of interpretation since judging a movie as enjoyable can be viewed as a form of meaning.
(24)See overview of theoretical approaches to interpretation in Chapter 2.
(25)Historical approaches have been used to look at the reception of many art and narrative forms. For example, Freedberg (1989) surveys the intense, visceral, and sometimes violent reactions that audiences have had to public displays of artworks (both low and high) over the centuries.
(26)Mayne (1993: p. 148).
(27)Staiger (2000: p. 162).
(28)Gina Fournier (2007) offers an exhaustive historical look at the reception of a single film.
(29)Fournier (2007: p. 31).
(30)White and Robinson (1991: p. 29).
(31)See overview of ideological approaches to film interpretation in Chapter 2.
(32)Television has been given more attention than film in cultural studies. This is a reflection of the Marxist roots of the field since television viewing provides a more pervasive immersion in ideological messages than film viewing.
(34)Ang (1985) and Liebes and Katz (1990) cover the reception of Dallas. The latter is the focus of my summary.
(35)Reader response criticism has been advocated by many literary scholars such as Iser (1974), Bleich (1978) and Holland (1989). Tompkin’s (1980) is a compilation of essays by key figures.
(40)Shaw (2004: p. 140-141).
(41)Film scholars Mayne (1993) and Staiger (1992) explore various approaches to film spectatorship and reception, while edited volumes by Bryant and Vorderer (2006), Bryant and Zillmann’s (1991) and Zillmann and Vorderer (2000) survey social science approaches to media reception and enjoyment.
(42)Oliver and Woolley (2011).
(43)Spectatorship approaches are overviewed in Chapter 2.
(44)Quotes from the introduction to the first edition of Reading the Romance (pp. 3-4). They were removed from the 1991 second edition, because the author felt that the juxtaposition simplified the positions of the other scholars. While this may be true, putting such divergent quotes side by side is a useful rhetorical technique for highlighting the difference between textual interpretation and the lived experience of fans.
الفصل الثامن: الأفلام دافع للسلوك: تأثيرات الفيلم
(2)Effects tradition has been subject to many overviews like Sparks (2010) an undergraduate text. Other texts such as Giles (2003) and Harris (1999) provide concise summaries of a variety of subdomains. Perse (2001) is a more advanced overview. Bryant and Oliver (2003) and Nabi and Oliver (2009) are edited volumes of contributions by many scholars in the field.
(3)Ultimately the line between consciousness and nonconsciousness is not clear-cut. It is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon. Sometimes we are partially aware of things, other times we are aware of things and then forget them. Consciousness varies across time and is best understood as a continuum. The type of impact of a film will vary depending on factors such as when it was viewed, the conditions of viewing and recall, etc.
(5)Blumer and Hauser (1933).
(6)Overviewed in Giles (2003).
(7)See Sparks (2010) and Bryant and Zillman (2009) for historical summaries of effects research.
(11)These topics have been the frequent objects of content analysis discussed in Chapter 2.
(12)The Snopes website for debunking media myths claims this widely reported incident has never been verified. Certain claims—T-shirt sales dropped 75% after the movie—are improbable based on the fact that even a successful film is only seen by a relatively small proportion of the population.
(14)Wilson and Hunter (1983).
(16)This is an example of the nonfiction media pointing a finger at its fictional counterpart.
(18)Wilson and Hunter (1983).
(19)Movie imagery even influenced how I see Harris and Klebold. I can’t separate the image of them stalking the halls wearing flowing overcoats and holding high powered weapons from those of The Matrix and The Basketball Diaries.
(20)See Kirsh (2006) for an overview, and Gentile (2003) for an edited overview of media and violence with a special focus on children.
(21)One can safely conclude there is “a lot” of violence in the media, but for amore subtle look at the amount and type of violence, see Kirsh (2006).
(22)Recent overviews of media and children include Singer and Singer (2001) and Strasburger and Wilson (2002).
(23)Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963).
(24)In a fourth condition a film is shown that features an adult dressed like a cartoon cat; the aggressive behavior is staged using unrealistic props.
(26)Huesmann and Eron (1986).
(27)“Correlation does not imply causation” is a mantra taught in all social science research courses. While it’s probably true that the more years of education one has, the more Woody Allen movies one has seen, it may not be the case that watching Woody Allen movies makes one smarter.
(28)This distinction between “cause” and “contribution” is used by Grimes, Anderson and Bergen (2008) to distinguish between the “causationists,” those researchers who take a strong position that media violence alone causes negative behavioral effects, and the “contributionists,” who believe that media violence is one factor that interacts with many others.
(29)Roskos-Ewoldsen and Roskos-Ewoldsen (2009).
(30)Much of this research is summarized in Harris and Bartlett (2009) and Gunter (2002).
(31)Collins et al. (2004).
(32)However, in regard to college students, another study (Wilson and Liedtke, 1984) took a straightforward copycat approach and surveyed college students about which movies had been a “significant stimulus” for a sex act. 64% of the males and 39% of the females indicated that at least one film had inspired them (including 10, Endless Love, The Blue Lagoon, Saturday Night Fever, and An Officer and a Gentlemen).
(33)Harris and Bartlett (2009).
(34)Harris and Bartlett (2009).
(35)Titus-Ernstoff et al. (2008).
(36)Hazan, Lipton, and Glantz (1994).
(37)Stoolmiller et al. (2010).
(39)Ballon and Leszcz (2007).
(40)Ballon and Leszcz (2007); Bozzuto (1975); Hamilton (1978); and Tenyi and Csizyne (1993).
(42)Ballon and Leszcz (2007).
(43)See Chapter 7.
(44)Hoekstra, Harris, and Helmick (1999).
(45)Harrison and Cantor (1999).
(48)Cantor and Omdahl (1999).
(49)Sparks and Cantor (1986).
(50)Cantor, Wilson, and Hoffner (1986).
(51)Singer and Singer (2005).
(52)It is primarily for this reason that, despite my personal love of movies, my wife and I have chosen to limit screen exposure with our children while they are young.
(53)Smith and Granados (2009).
(54)Levine and Harrison (2008).
(56)Busselle and Crandall (2002).
(58)Linz, Donnerstein, and Penrod (1988).
(59)Jowett and O’Donnell (1992).
(60)Gerbner et al. (2002)
(62)Postman wrote his book in the 1980s. Today’s prominence of the computer screen adds another dimension to his argument.
(63)McLuhan, Postman, and other cultural critics typically don’t refer to surveys or experiments, but they do share concerns about the negative impact of media on society. If one extrapolates the results of some effects studies across the culture, similar conclusions may be reached.
(64)Strasburger and Wilson (2002).
(65)Following Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1963), psychological theory has been overshadowed by a litany of atheoretical findings. This paucity of theory was documented in a content analysis by Potter and Riddle (2007). Recent attempts such as Nabi and Oliver’s (2009) edited volume are designed to give the field more conceptual weight.
(66)A variety of perspectives on public policy as it relates to media and children are discussed in Singer and Singer (2005).
(67)Perse (2001: p. ix).
(68)Sparks, Sparks, and Sparks (2009: p. 273).
(69)Huesmann and Taylor (2003).
(70)Freedman (2002: p. ix).
(71)Trend (2007: p. 3).
(72)See Huesmann and Taylor (2003: pp. 112, 130, 111) for the three claims, respectively.
(73)Grimes, Anderson and Bergen (2008: p. 49).
(74)In particular, the criticism seems to imply that a study must be perfectly randomly sampled, that there can be no variation in participant response, and that the measure for the study must exactly and completely capture the effect (the “construct”) of interest. Such studies do not exist in the social sciences.
(75)I once attended a media effects presentation at a national communication convention where I asked a question about the experiential dimension of the participants in the study. I intended it as a friendly question to move the discussion into a slightly different direction. One of the researchers, however, took my question as an implied denunciation of the work and suggested I “go down the hall where the rhetoricians are doing that kind of thing.”
(77)Trend (2007: p. 1).
(79)Linz, Donnerstein, and Penrod (1988).
(80)For those unfamiliar with this movie, the tagline on IMDB.com says it all: “Danny Bonaduce and a cast of Playboy playmates get H.O.T.”
(81)Directed by Amy Heckerling, written by Cameron Crowe, and featuring talented young stars including Sean Penn and Jennifer Jason Leigh.
الفصل التاسع: الأفلام كوسيلة للعيش: وظائف الفيلم
(1)In Widescreen Dreams: Growing Up Gay at the Movies, Horrigan shares his experience of Dog Day Afternoon, as well as films like Hello Dolly!, The Sound of Music, and The Poseidon Adventure, mixing personal reflection with film commentary. In explaining his choices, he says, “I focus on these [films] … because they happened to be the movies that meant the most to me as I was growing up and because in writing about them, I’m trying to understand as fully as possible who I am and why I think and feel as I do” (p. xix).
(2)Horrigan (1999: p. xix).
(3)Using movies self-reflectively is not inherently a good thing. A viewer may make life choices based on a film that she subsequently comes to regret (e.g., “I should never have believed that Prince Charming would rescue me after seeing Pretty Woman”). Alternatively, a viewer could be happy with the impact of a film on his life (“Rambo convinced me that might makes right”), yet have that impact judged negatively by others.
(5)This is an example of multimedia synchronicity. While writing this section, I recalled a movie about a wooden Indian in a boat, but couldn’t remember the title. I Googled the plot and, to my delight, found it was called Paddle-to-the-Sea. On IMDB.com I learned it was a short film based on the book of the same name by Holling Clancy Holling. The next day I happened to be watching the 1990s TV show, Northern Exposure on DVD. In the episode, “The Final Frontier,” the erudite disc jockey Chris (John Corbett) is reading Paddle-to-the-Sea on air. Northern Exposure is a favorite of mine. The episode “Rosebud,” which uses Citizen Kane to make the point that movies are modern healing myths, was first aired at the same time I was reading Kenneth Burke’s essay “Literature as Equipment for Living.” These influences shaped my research program and much of this chapter. And taking it back even further, Northern Exposure is clearly a version of Sesame Street transplanted to Alaska with adults and no Muppets.
(6)Wonderly (2009: p. 12).
(8)Sutherland and Feltey (2009).
(9)Van Belle and Mash (2009).
(10)Murray and Heumann (2009).
(11)Alexander, Lenahan, and Pavlov (2005).
(12)Paddock, Terranova, and Giles (2001).
(13)Wedding, Boyd, and Niemic (2010).
(14)Dr Fritz Engstrom leads summer workshops at the Cape Cod Institute where therapists reflect on psychology and film in the morning and enjoy the beach in the afternoon—the good life.
(15)Kerby et al. (2008).
(16)Gladstein and Feldstein (1983).
(17)Cinematherapy was preceded by bibliotherapy, the use of books to promote therapeutic change (e.g., Pardeck, 1993). The term cinematherapy was first used by Berg-Cross, Jennings, and Baruch (1990) although the therapeutic use of film appeared earlier (Smith, 1974). Hesley and Hesley (2001), Rubin (2008), and Gregerson (2010) are all extensions of cinematherapy and other uses of popular culture in counseling.
(18)Kuriansky et al. (2010).
(19)Turley and Derdeyn (1990).
(20)This is the approach of Hesley and Hesley in their Rent Two Films and Let’s Talk in the Morning.
(22)Unfortunately Jones (2002) fails to consistently confront the studies on negative impacts of violence, an example of how the humanities and the social sciences remain segregated.
(23)Madison and Schmidt (2001).
(25)Niemiec and Wedding (2008).
(26)Positive psychology encompasses many areas of psychology including clinical, personality, developmental, social, and neuropsychology. The movement was popularized by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000), building upon Csikszentmihalyi’s (1997) work on “flow” (those moments when people are at their optimal level of functioning) and related concepts.
(27)Peterson and Seligman (2004).
(28)See Blumler and Katz (1974), Rosengren, Wenner and Palmgreen (1985), and Rubin (2009) for overviews of uses and gratifications research.
(29)Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch (1974: pp. 21-22). Rubin (2009) points out that recent study has been more interested in practical implications.
(30)See Chapter 7 for an overview of this issue.
(31)See Zillmann (1988), and Knobloch-Westerick (2006).
(32)Note that “media” is embedded in the term “mediated,” a form of communication in which the text/screen/sound is a symbolic representation of its creator(s).
(33)Perse and Rubin (1990).
(34)Radway’s (1991: p. 61) study is discussed in more detail in Chapter 7.
(35)See Chapter 3 for discussion on portrayal of mental health professionals and mental illness.
(37)Tesser, Millar, and Wu (1988).
(38)Oliver and Woolley (2011).
(39)Burke (1973: p. 304).
(40)The importance of symbolism runs throughout Burke’s (1966; 1973) writings.
(41)See Dine Young (1996, 2000) for further discussion of this phenomenon.
(42)See Chapters 6 and 7 for further exploration of these ideas.
(43)Narrative approaches to knowledge are discussed in Chapter 2.
(45)Mar and Oatley (2008: p. 183).
(46)Mar and Oatley (2008: p. 186).
(48)Qualitative audience response methods allow scholars to consider idiosyncratic experiences that may not be typical. For example, the notion of catharsis has been widely rejected in the effect tradition in regard to aggressive (Bandura, 2009) and sexual (Harris and Bartlett, 2009) impulses. Given a broad sample of participants, it is difficult to systematically demonstrate that most people will experience a deflation of intense emotions (such as aggression) when exposed to emotional films (as opposed to assimilating the emotions of the film). This doesn’t mean that catharsis never happens. Perhaps it is a more subtle, reflective process that occurs when people with sufficient ego strength are exposed to a well-done fictional narrative in a safe environment. Could such exposure help some people modulate aggressive tendencies in everyday life? Instances supporting this claim would me more accessible in open-ended interviews than they would be in social psych experiments.
(49)See Rubin (1996) for an overview of autobiographical memory.
(50)See Fivush and Haden (2003) for an edited volume exploring the relationship between narratives and autobiographical memory.
(51)See section on psychiatric disturbances in Chapter 8.
(55)Dine Young (2000).
(56)All subjects from my interviews were assigned pseudonyms to insure confidentiality.
(57)See Hills (2002) for overview of fan theory.
(59)See Lieblich, McAdams, and Josselson (2004) and White and Epston (1990) as examples of narrative therapy and Payne (1989) for the therapeutic use of rhetoric.
(60)Heinz Werner (1980) argues that development is more than just the aging process. What comes later cannot automatically be assumed to be more developed than what comes before. Instead, development is a conceptual framework that assumes that some modes of functioning have advantages over other modes and can therefore be said to have “progressed,” become “higher developed” or even to be “better.”
(61)Dine Young (1996).
الفصل العاشر: خاتمة: الصورة الكاملة
(1)For the record, I am not a Star Wars purist. I don’t mind Lucas tinkering with the special effects, and I enjoyed Episodes I-III. Nor I am particularly troubled by the imperious tone Lucas sometimes takes in interviews, and I am content with his decision to leave the series at six episodes. However, I was bothered when he started claiming in the 1990s that he had never intended a third trilogy. This seemed like a violation of the accepted fact that my pre-adolescent friends and I pondered endlessly, like a rug being pulled out from under my thirty-something self.
(2)This figure is essentially a combination of Figure 1-3 and Figure 8-3.
(3)Two other important dimensions of the film experience (conscious versus non-conscious; social versus individual) that I have repeatedly emphasized cannot be captured in Figure 10-4 without going 3-D.
(4)Actually, I do remember that The Goodbye Girl starred Richard Dreyfuss but that was only because he would soon end up in a kid-friendly Spielberg movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind.
(5)Filmmakers also engage in multiple levels of psychological processing as they employ perceptual technologies (cameras), write scripts, and draw upon themes that resonate in their own lives. More scholarly attention has been paid to viewers mostly because they are a larger and more accessible group than filmmakers.
(6)See Ch. 8 for an overview of these dangers.