مراجع وقراءات إضافية

The best guide to the individual writings and main editions of Luther’s works in Latin, German, French, and English is the Hilfsbuch zum Lutherstudium edited by Kurt Aland (4th edn., 1996). The pamphlets and books that were printed prior to Luther’s death in 1546 have been catalogued in two volumes by Josef Benzing and Helmut Claus in Lutherbibliographie (1989/1994). The Kessler Reformation collection in the Pitts Library at Emory University contains over 3.500 Bibles, books, and pamphlets printed no later than 1570 and attributed to Martin Luther, his friends, and opponents. Available online from the same collection is a digital collection of woodcuts from Reformation pamphlets (http:// www.pitts.emory.edu/dia/woodcuts.htm). The most thorough ongoing bibliography of new editions, translations, and writings about Luther appears annually in Lutherjahrbuch (Göttingen, 1919ff.). The recent Luther Handbuch edited by Albrecht Beutel (Tübingen, 2006) has brief surveys of newer editions, aids, and histories of Luther research, plus essays on Luther’s life and work and a manageable bibliography and index. The most versatile visual resource is the CD-ROM produced by Helmar Junghans, Martin Luther: Exploring His Life and Times, 1483–1546. Available in German (1998) and English (1999), it contains everything historical, theological, biographical, and textual relating to Luther and his world in formats that include illustrated explanations, chronologies, images of people and texts, listings, plus an animated story of Luther’s life for children of all ages.
For most of his career, Martin Luther exhibited an astounding capacity for work. The words put on paper by him or recorded by listeners fill over 100 large volumes in the only critical edition that aspires to completeness. The first volume of this Weimar edition appeared in 1883 during the 400th anniversary of Luther’s birth; after 126 years, the last volume appeared in 2009, but documents are still being found that contain new material or require revision of works edited decades ago. The Weimar edition has four sections. The first 60 volumes contain Luther’s lectures, sermons, postils, disputations, polemical writings, pedagogical and political essays, prefaces composed for a variety of publications, hymns, liturgies, and consolatory pieces dedicated to victims of religious persecution. Five volumes each of indexes to the Latin and German writings plus other index volumes complete section one (abbreviated WA). The second section (WABr) contains Luther’s correspondence. Over 3.700 documents, of which 2.650 items were written by Luther himself, are edited in the first 13 volumes. The remaining volumes in this section contain excellent indexes. The third section (WADB) assembles documents by Luther and his colleagues that arose in connection with their translation of the Bible. In addition to German texts of biblical books, these 12 volumes include a revision of the Latin Vulgate and a record of how the German translation was revised. The fourth and final section (WATR) presents in six volumes a collation of earlier editions of Luther’s Table Talk. Owing to its careful preparation and helpful indexes, the Table Talk has gradually gained credibility as a reliable source of Luther’s life and thought when it is judiciously interpreted. The Weimar edition is readable and searchable online from Chadwyck at http://www.luther. chadwyck.co.uk. In addition, the publisher (Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger Weimar) has made available at a reasonable price easily readable reprints of all four sections of the Weimar edition.
Hundreds of books and essays about Luther are available, but once an introduction or biography has provided sufficient background, Luther is best consulted directly about himself. Reader-friendly editions and translations are available in many languages, including English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Hungarian, Chinese, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Portuguese, and Korean. For English readers, the American edition of Luther’s Works (LW) in 55 volumes (1955–86) published by Fortress Press and Concordia Publishing House is being expanded by Concordia; and Fortress Press is issuing separately new translations of key works in a series named Luther Study Edition. Luther’s Works is also available on CD-ROM. A good place to start is not the Ninety-Five Theses, but treatises from the 1520s like Freedom of a Christian and the Treatise on Good Works. They present the most lucid and accessible contrast of Luther’s theology and proposals for reform with the medieval religion he wanted to change. Then sample Luther’s correspondence, for example in the excellent edition by Gottfried Krodel in volumes 48–50 of the American edition, and this complicated man and his world with all its peaks and valleys will come alive. The Martin Luther Studienausgabe (StA: Berlin and Leipzig 1979–) contains recent scholarly introductions to selected Luther writings with 16th-century orthography and a glossary of early new High German. For more assistance with reading Luther in Latin and German, consult the following: Birgit Stolt, ‘Germanistische Hilfsmittel zum Lutherstudium’, Lutherjahrbuch, 46 (1979), 120–35; Johannes Schilling, ‘Latinistische Hilfsmittel zum Lutherstudium’, Lutherjahrbuch, 55 (1988), 83–101. Available also is a recent three-volume edition of selected Luther texts in Latin with German translation on facing pages (Leipzig, 2006–9).

مواقع ويب

Many websites on Luther and the Reformation contain inaccurate content, but the following offer helpful and reliable information. (All accessed 23 June 2010.)
  • (http://www.luther2017.de) The official website of the Luther decade (2008–17) with news updates and information about the Reformation jubilee 2017 and pictures from Luther sites.
  • (http://www.ecumenical-institute.org) The Institute for Ecumenical Research in Strasbourg offers seminars, conferences, dialogues, and publications to enhance relations between Lutherans and other churches.
  • (http://www.lutheranworld.org) The Lutheran World Federation, which has the most up-to-date information about Lutheran ecumenism and churches around the world.
  • (http://www.martinluther.de) Website of the Lutherhalle in Wittenberg, one of four Luther museums that comprise the Stiftung Luthergedenkstätten in Sachsen Anhalt, a foundation that provides information about museums, research, educational offerings, and databases for learning about the Reformation and visiting the Luther memorial sites.
  • (http://www.luther-gesellschaft.com) The Luther-Gesellschaft is a scholarly society that holds conferences and promotes research and publications on Martin Luther and the Reformation, including the journal Luther, published three times a year, and the annual Lutherjahrbuch.
  • (http://www.lutheranquarterly.com) The Lutheran Quarterly Journal and Lutheran Quarterly Books feature essays, book reviews, and monographs on Luther and Lutheranism.
  • (www.reformationresearch.org) The Society for Reformation Research sponsors conference sessions, awards, and the Archive for Reformation History, which is published jointly with its European counterpart.

كُتُب ومقالات

Resources consulted for this book and for additional information on Martin Luther’s life, thought, and writings:
  • Matthieu Arnold, La Correspondance de Luther (Mainz, 1996).
  • David V. N. Bagchi, Luther’s Earliest Opponents (Minneapolis, 1991).
  • Albrecht Beutel, ‘Das Lutherbild Friedrich Nietzsches’, Lutherjahrbuch, 72 (2005), 119–46.
  • Albrecht Beutel (ed.), Luther Handbuch (Tübingen, 2005).
  • Biblia Germanica 1545, facsimile edn. (Stuttgart, 1967).
  • Peter Blickle, The Revolution of 1525 (Baltimore and London, 1991; German, 1977).
  • Heinrich Bornkamm, Martin Luther in der Mitte seines Lebens (Göttingen, 1979).
  • Gerhard Bott and Bernd Moeller, Martin Luther und die Reformation in Deutschland, Exhibition in the German National Museum, Nuremberg, 1983 (Frankfurt, 1983).
  • Martin Brecht, Martin Luther, 3 vols (Stuttgart, 1981–7; English tr., 1985–93).
  • Christopher B. Brown, Singing the Gospel (Cambridge, MA, 2005).
  • Georg Buchwald, Luther-Kalendarium (Leipzig, 1929).
  • Clayborne Carson et al. (eds.), Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr, Vol. 1: Called to Serve, January 1929–June 1951 (Berkeley, CA, 1992).
  • Irene Dingel, Günther Wartenberg, and Michael Beyer (eds.), Die Theologische Fakultät Wittenberg 1502–1602 (Leipzig, 2002).
  • Angelika Dörfler-Dierken, ‘Luther und die heilige Anna’, Lutherjahrbuch, 64 (1997), 19–46.
  • Mark U. Edwards, Jr, Luther and the False Brethren (Stanford, 1975).
  • Mark U. Edwards, Jr, Luther’s Last Battles (Ithaca and London, 1983).
  • Tibor Fabiny, Martin Luther’s Last Will and Testament (Dublin and Budapest, 1982).
  • Leif Grane, Martinus Noster: Luther in the German Reform Movement 1518–1521 (Mainz, 1994).
  • H. G. Haile, Luther: An Experiment in Biography (Garden City, NY, 1980).
  • John M. Headley, Luther’s View of Church History (New Haven, 1963).
  • Scott H. Hendrix, Luther and the Papacy (Philadelphia, 1981).
  • Scott H. Hendrix, Luther: Pillars of Theology (New York and Nashville, 2009).
  • Scott H. Hendrix, ‘Luther on Marriage’, in Harvesting Martin Luther’s Reflections on Theology, Ethics, and the Church, ed. Timothy Wengert (Grand Rapids, MI, 2004), 169–84.
  • Scott H. Hendrix, ‘Martin Luther, Reformer’, in Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 6: Reform and Expansion 1500–1600, ed. R. Po-chia Hsia (Cambridge, UK, 2007), 3–19.
  • Hans J. Hillerbrand (ed.), The Reformation: A Narrative History Related by Contemporary Observers and Participants (Grand Rapids, MI, 1982).
  • Hans J. Hillerbrand, The Division of Christendom (Louisville and London, 2007).
  • Helmar Junghans, Der junge Luther und die Humanisten (Weimar, 1984).
  • Helmar Junghans, Martin Luther und Wittenberg (Munich and Berlin, 1996).
  • Helmar Junghans, Spätmittelalter, Luther’s Reformation, Kirche in Sachsen, ed. Michael Beyer and Günther Wartenberg (Leipzig, 2001).
  • Helmar Junghans (ed.), Leben und Werk Martin Luthers von 1526 bis 1546, 2 vols (Göttingen, 1983).
  • Susan Karant-Nunn and Merry Wiesner-Hanks (ed. and tr.), Luther on Women: A Sourcebook (Cambridge, UK, 2003).
  • Erika Kohler, Martin Luther und der Festbrauch (Cologne and Graz, 1959).
  • Robert Kolb, Martin Luther as Prophet, Teacher, and Hero (Grand Rapids, MI, 1999).
  • Robert Kolb, Martin Luther as Confessor of the Faith (Oxford, 2009).
  • Robert Kolb and Timothy Wengert (eds.), The Book of Concord (Minneapolis, 2000).
  • Ulrich Köpf, ‘Kurze Geschichte der Weimarer Lutherausgabe’, in D. Martin Luthers Werke: Sonderedition der kritischen Weimarer Ausgabe (Weimar, 2000), 1–24.
  • Beth Kreitzer, Reforming Mary (Oxford, 2004).
  • Robin Leaver, Luther’s Liturgical Music (Grand Rapids, MI, 2006).
  • Hartmut Lehmann, ‘Anmerkungen zur Entmythologisierung der Luthermythen 1883–1983’, Archiv für Kulturgeschchte, 68 (1986), 457–77.
  • Volker Leppin, Martin Luther (Darmstadt, 2006).
  • Elsie Anne McKee, Katharina Schütz Zell, 2 vols (Leiden, 1999).
  • Harald Meller (ed.), Fundsache Luther: Archäologen auf den Spuren des Reformators (Stuttgart, 2008).
  • Bernd Moeller, Luther-Rezeption, ed. Johannes Schilling (Göttingen, 2001).
  • Johann Baptist Müller (ed.), Die Deutschen und Luther (Stuttgart, 1983).
  • Nikolaus Müller (ed.), Die Wittenberger Bewegung, 2nd edn. (Leipzig, 1911).
  • Heiko A. Oberman, Luther: Man between God and the Devil (New Haven, CT, 1989; German, 1982).
  • Joachim Ott and Martin Treu (eds.), Luthers Thesenanschlag – Faktum oder Fiktion (Leipzig, 2008).
  • Jaroslav Pelikan (ed.), Interpreters of Luther (Philadelphia, 1968).
  • Volker Press and Dieter Stievermann (eds.), Martin Luther: Probleme seiner Zeit (Stuttgart, 1986).
  • Joachim Rogge (ed.), 1521–1971: Luther in Worms, Ein Quellenbuch (Witten, 1971).
  • Otto Scheel (ed.), Dokumente zur Luthers Entwicklung, 2nd edn. (Tübingen, 1929).
  • Martin Schloemann, Luthers Apfelbäumchen? Ein Kapitel deutscher Mentalitätsgeschichte seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg (Göttingen, 1994).
  • Klaus Scholder and Dieter Kleinmann (eds.), Protestantische Profile (Königstein, 1983).
  • Reinhard Schwarz, Luther (Göttingen, 1986).
  • R. W. Scribner, ‘Luther Myth’ and ‘Incombustible Luther’, in Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London, 1987), 301–53.
  • Ian Siggins, Luther and His Mother (Philadelphia, 1981).
  • Jeanette C. Smith, ‘Katharina von Bora through Five Centuries:
    A Historiography’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 30 (1999), 745–74.
  • David Steinmetz, Luther and Staupitz (Durham, NC, 1980).
  • David Steinmetz, Luther in Context, 2nd edn. (Grand Rapids, MI, 2002).
  • Kenneth Strand (ed.), Luther’s September Bible in Facsimile (Ann Arbor, MI, 1972).
  • Martin Treu, ‘Lieber Herr Käthe’ – Katharina von Bora, die Lutherin, Catalogue for the 1999 Exhibition in the Lutherhalle (Wittenberg, 1999).
  • Martin Treu, Katharina von Bora, 3rd edn. (Wittenberg, 1999).
  • Elizabeth Vandiver, Ralph Keen, and Thomas D. Frazel, Luther’s Lives: Two Contemporary Accounts of Martin Luther (Manchester, 2002).
  • Johannes Wallmann, ‘The Reception of Luther’s Writings on the Jews from the Reformation to the End of the 19th Century’, Lutheran Quarterly, 1 (1987), 72–97.
  • Wilhelm Weber, ‘Das Lutherdenkmal in Worms’, in Der Reichstag zu Worms von 1521, ed. Fritz Reuter (Worms, 1971), 490–510.
  • James M. Weiss, ‘Erasmus at Luther’s Funeral: Melanchthon’s Commemorations of Luther in 1546’, Sixteenth Century Journal, 16 (1985), 91–114.
  • Timothy Wengert (ed.), The Pastoral Luther (Grand Rapids, MI, 2009).
  • Jared Wicks, Luther’s Reform (Mainz, 1992).
  • Ernst W. Zeeden, Martin Luther und die Reformation im Urteil des deutschen Luthertums, 2 vols (Freiburg, 1950, 1952).

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