مصادر الصور

  • (1-1) Three primary groupings of organisms
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer, Mount St. Joseph University, Cincinnati, Ohio
  • (1-2) Cell structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (1-3) Phylogenetic tree showing the relationships between species of Bacillus (bacteria)
    Figure created using data from “http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu” from a study of bacteria collected from air samples by S. Shivaji et al., International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 56 (2006), 1465–73
  • (1-4) Filaments of a photosynthetic cyanobacterium
    CCALA Culture Collection of Autotrophic Organisms (http://ccala.butbn.cas.cz) with permission
  • (1-5) Complex structure of the bacterial flagellum
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (1-6) The wheel of eukaryote life
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (1-7) Complex structure of a cryptomonad alga produced by fusion of an amoeboid cell with a photosynthetic red alga
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (1-8) The structure of a virus
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (2-1) Transmembrane proteins transport ions and molecules between cells and the surrounding environment
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (2-2) The energy sources of autotrophs and heterotrophs
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (2-3) Thylakoids inside the cell of a cyanobacterium
    © “www.cronodon.com”, reproduced with permission
  • (2-4) Electron transport chains harness energy within the cell membrane
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (2-5) Graph illustrating the rise and fall of a bacterial population
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (2-6) Cell division in bacteria and an amoeboid eukaryote
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (2-7) Selection of fungal spores
    Third image provided by Huzefa Raja
  • (3-1) Genome sizes for viruses and cellular organisms
  • (3-2) Transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (3-3) Sexual reproduction in baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (3-4) Sexual reproduction in a filamentous zygomycete fungus, Cokeromyces recurvatus
    Reproduced from L. Shanor, A. W. Poitras, and R. K. Benjamin Mycologia, 42 (1950), 271–8. Reprinted with permission from Mycologia. © The Mycological Society of America
  • (4-1) Cycle of viral replication in a host cell
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (4-2) Bacteriophage injecting its DNA into a host bacterial cell
    Illustration by Mark W. F. Fischer
  • (6-1) Mycorrhizal fungi associated with plant root systems
    Image provided by Paola Bonfante and Andrea Genre. Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature Communications, 2010
  • (6-2) Electron micrograph of a marine coccolithophorid alga
    Philippe Crassous/Science Photo Library

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