المراجع

تمهيد

  • Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies (A. Lavers, Trans.). New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Benzakin, J. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] (November), New York.
  • Gans, H. (1980). Deciding what’s news. New York: Vintage.
  • Grundberg, A. (1990a). Ask it no questions: The camera can lie. The New York Times, August 12, Sec. 2, p. 1.
  • Grundberg, A. (1990b). Crisis of the real: Writings on photography, 1974–1989. New York: Aperture.
  • Kaufman, M. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] (November), New York.
  • Kobersteen, K. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] (November), Washington, DC.
  • New York Times Company (1992). 1991 Annual Report. New York: Author.
  • Rasgin, H. (1992). Interview by author [cassette recording] (March), New York.
  • Rasmussen, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] (May), Miami.
  • Ritchin, F. (1989). In our own image: The coming revolution in photography. New York: Aperture.
  • Schnitzlein, R. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, Washington, DC.
  • Sontag, S. (1973). On photography. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Steber, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (August), Miami.
  • Szarkowski, J. (1966). The photographer’s eye. New York: Doubleday.

الفصل الأول: الصحافة المصورة في الولايات المتحدة: تاريخ موجز

  • Carlebach, M. L. (1992). The origins of photojournalism in America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Carlebach, M. L. (1997). American photojournalism comes of age. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Chapnick, H. (1994). Truth needs no ally. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
  • Foresta, M. A. (1996). American photographs: The first century. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Fulton, M. (1988). Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Hagen, C. (1992). Photographs and political families. The New York Times, October 25, p. H 28.
  • Jussim, E. (1988). The tyranny of the pictorial: American photojournalism from 1880 to 1920. In M. Fulton (Ed.), Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America (pp. 36–73). New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • McChesney, R. W. (2004). The problem of the media. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  • Moeller, S. D. (1989). Shooting war. New York: Basic Books.
  • Newhall, B. (1982). The history of photography: From 1839 to the present. New York: Museum of Modern Art.
  • Nir, Y. (1985). The Bible and the image. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
  • Osman, C. & Phillips, S. S. (1988). European visions: Magazine photography in Europe between the wars. In M. Fulton (Ed.), Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America (pp. 75–103). New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Rhode, R. B. & McCall, F. H. (1961). Press photography: Reporting with a camera. New York: Macmillan.
  • Rosenblum, N. (1984). A world history of photography. New York: Abbeville.
  • Russell, G. (1995). New directions: 1950–1980. In R. Lacayo & G. Russell (Eds.), Eyewitness: 150 years of photojournalism (pp. 125–163). New York: Time Books.
  • Smith, W. E. & Smith, A. W. (1975). Minamata. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Sontag, S. (2003). Regarding the pain of others. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Stapp, W. (1988). Subjects of strange … and of fearful interest: Photojournalism from its beginnings in 1839. In M. Fulton (Ed.), Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America (pp. 1–35). New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Stott, W. (1973). Documentary expression and Thirties America. New York: Oxford University Press.

الفصل الثاني: الصحيفة المرئية

  • Carroll, J. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Los Angeles.
  • Crawford, C. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Los Angeles.
  • Davis, M. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] (May), Miami.
  • Elbert, J. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Washington, DC.
  • Essick, P. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] (August), New York.
  • Fisher, G. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Los Angeles.
  • Frank, D. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), New York.
  • Huppke, R. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Chicago.
  • Irby, K. (2002). Why photojournalism matters. July 31, poynteronline.org.
  • Kobré, K. (2000). Photojournalism: The professional’s approach. Boston: Focal Press.
  • Lee, C. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] (November), New York.
  • Moses, M. (2000). The elements of powerful pages. March 20, poynteronline.org
  • Olsenius, R. (2005). National Geographic field guide: Digital black & white. Washington DC: National Geographic Society.
  • Radio-Television News Directors Association & Foundation (2004). Ethics: Graphic images. May 13, rtnda.org.
  • Rasmussen, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] (May), Miami.
  • Smith, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), New York.
  • Steber, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (August), Miami.
  • Strazzante, S. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Chicago.
  • Tarbert, J. (2004). The power of images, May 17, dartcenter.org.
  • Van Wagener, A. (2004). Visual credibility. January 16, poynteronline.org.
  • Weiss, K. R. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Los Angeles.
  • Wells, H. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Los Angeles.
  • Whitley, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] (June), Los Angeles.

الفصل الثالث: بناء الواقع

  • Altschull, J. H. (1987). Agents of power. New York: Longman.
  • Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies (A. Lavers, Trans.). New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Benzakin, J. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, New York.
  • Berger, A. A. (1982). Media analysis techniques. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  • Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Doubleday.
  • Borders, B. (1992). Interview by author [cassette recording] March, New York.
  • Chapnick, H. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, New York.
  • Eagleton, T. (1983). Literary theory: An introduction. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
  • Essick, P. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] August, New York.
  • Gans, H. (1980). Deciding what’s news. New York: Vintage.
  • Jacobson, C. (2002). Introduction. In C. Jacobson (Ed.), Underexposed: “Pictures can lie and liars use pictures.” London: Vision On Publishing.
  • Kaufman, M. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording]. November, New York.
  • Lee, C. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, New York.
  • Lee, M. A., & Solomon, N. (1990). Unreliable sources: A guide to detecting bias in the news media. New York: Lyle Stuart.
  • McChesney, R. W. (2004). The problem of the media. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  • Parenti, M. (1986). Inventing reality: The politics of the mass media. New York: St. Martin’s.
  • Rosenblum, M. (1979). Coups & earthquakes. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Schiller, D. (1979). An historical approach to objectivity and professionalism in American news reporting. Journal of Communication, 29, 46–57.
  • Schudson, M. (2003). The sociology of news. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • Sigal, L. V. (1973). Reporters and officials. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.
  • Sigelman, L. (1973). Reporting the news: An organizational analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 79, 132–151.
  • Sless, D. (1981). Learning and visual communication. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Snow, R. P. (1983). Creating media culture. Beverly Hills: Sage.
  • Sontag, S. (2003). Regarding the pain of others. New York: Picador.
  • Tuchman, G. (1972). Objectivity as strategic ritual: An examination of newsmen’s notions of objectivity. American Journal of Sociology, 77, 660–679.
  • Tuchman, G. (1978). Making news. New York: Free Press.
  • van Dijk, T. A. (1988). News as discourse. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

الفصل الرابع: ثقافة غرفة الأخبار وإجراءاتها الاعتيادية

  • Berger, J. (1982). Appearances. In J. Berger & J. Mohr (Eds.), Another way of telling. New York: Pantheon.
  • Black, G. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Chicago.
  • Blackford, L. & Minch, L. (2004). Front-page news, back-page coverage, the struggle for civil rights in Lexington. Lexington Herald Leader, July 4, p. A 1.
  • Boeth, R. (1992). Interview by author [cassette recording] March, New York.
  • Borders, B. (1992). Interview by author [cassette recording] March, New York.
  • Carroll, J. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Chapnick, H. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, New York.
  • Chomsky, N. (1979). Ideological conformity in America. January 27.
  • Crawford, C. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Crocker, R. R. (1992). Interview by author [cassette recording] March, Washington, D.C.
  • Davis, M. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Downie, L. (1992). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, Columbia, MO.
  • duCille, M. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording]. November, Washington, DC.
  • Elbert, J. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Washington, DC.
  • Fisher, G. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Frank, D. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, New York.
  • Fulton, M. (1988). Bearing witness: The 1930s to the 1950s. In M. Fulton (Ed.), Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America (pp. 105–172). New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Gans, H. (1980). Deciding what’s news. New York: Vintage.
  • Heisler, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Huppke, R. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Chicago.
  • Irby, K. (2004, March 29). Beyond taste: Editing truth. poynter.org.
  • Jacobson, C. (2002). Introduction. In C. Jacobson (Ed.), Underexposed: “Pictures can lie and liars use pictures.” London: Vision On Publishing.
  • Jones Griffiths, P. (2002). Death of the photographer. In C. Jacobson (Ed.), Underexposed: “Pictures can lie and liars use pictures.” London: Vision On Publishing.
  • McChesney, R. W. (2004). The problem of the media. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  • McKoy, K. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Muller, H. (1992). Telephone interview by author [cassette recording] October, Columbia, MO.
  • Newkirk, P. (2000). Within the veil. New York: New York University Press.
  • Panagopoulos, T. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Chicago.
  • Poynteronline (2003). Training is the biggest influence on news judgment. poynter.org, April 10.
  • Rasmussen, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording], May, Miami.
  • Rosenblum, M. (1993). Who stole the news. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Ryan, K. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording], June, New York.
  • Sinco, L. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Smith, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, New York.
  • Strazzante, S. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording], June, Chicago.
  • Wanta, W. (1988). The effects of dominant photographs: An agenda setting experiment. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 107–111.
  • Weiss, K. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Wells, H. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Whitley, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.

الفصل الخامس: الجوانب الاقتصادية

  • Altschull, J. H. (1987). Agents of power. New York: Longman.
  • Associated Press. (2004a). Effects of cuts concern journalists. May 24, Author.
  • Associated Press. (2004b). Paper apologizes for civil rights coverage. July 5, washingtonpost.com.
  • Blackford, L. & Minch, L. (2004, July 4). Front-page news, back-page coverage, the struggle for civil rights in Lexington. Lexington Herald Leader, p. A 1.
  • CNNMoney.com. (2006). Wall Street Journal to run front page ads. July 19, money.cnn.com.
    Cooper, G. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, New York.
  • Epstein, E. J. (1974). News from nowhere. New York: Vintage.
  • Essick, P. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] August, New York.
  • Fisher, G. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
    Fitzgerald, M. (2006). Hollinger: Sun-Times cluster results “disappointing,” may cut 10% of workforce. January 19, nevadathunder.com.
  • Graham. D. E. (2006). 2005 Washington Post Company Annual Report. Washington, DC: Washington Post Company.
  • The Guild Reporter (2001). Byline strike challenges loss of pension package. April 20, newsguild.org.
  • Heher, A. M. (2007). Tribune accepts $8.2B offer from Zell. April 2, Yahoo News.
  • Kaufman, M. (1991). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, New York.
  • Knight Foundation. (2006). Newspaper industry needs new owners, says former LA Times editor. April 26, Knight Foundation News Release.
  • Lee, M. A. & Solomon, N. (1990). Unreliable sources: A guide to detecting bias in the news media. New York: Lyle Stuart.
  • Mamet, D. (2002). Making choices: Confronting or avoiding the issue In C. Jacobson (Ed.), Underexposed: “Pictures can lie and liars use pictures.” London: Vision On Publishing.
  • McChesney, R. W. (2004). The problem of the media. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  • Meyer, P. (2004). The vanishing newspaper: Saving journalism in the information age. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.
  • Panagopoulos, T. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Chicago.
  • Parenti, M. (1986). Inventing reality: The politics of the mass media. New York: St. Martin’s.
  • Pitts, L. (2007). Movies mirror our culture, like it or not. The Miami Herald, May 14, p. 1B.
  • Poynteronline. (2003). Journalistic values persist despite profit pressures. April 10, poynter.org.
  • Rasmussen, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Siklos, R. (2005). Shareholder demands that chain be sold. The New York Times, November 2, p. C 6.
  • Tribune Company. (2005). 2004 Tribune Company Annual Report. Chicago: Author.
  • Washington Post Company. (1992). 1991 Washington Post Company Annual Report. Washington, DC: Author.
  • Wells, H. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • writenews.com. (2000). Hollinger International acquires Copley’s Chicago newspapers. October 23, Poynter.org.

الفصل السادس: الأخلاقيات

  • Associated Press. (2003). Associated Press: Letter on photo editing policy. September 25, poynter.org.
  • Black, G. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Chicago.
  • Carlebach, M. L. (1997). American photojournalism comes of age. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Carroll, J. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Finley, D. (2007). About the Tech “massacre” on the front page. April 17, hamptonroads.com.
  • Irby, K. (2003a). L.A. Times photographer fired over altered image. April 2, poynter.org.
  • Irby, K. (2003b). Suspended photographer focuses on ethics. September 25, poynter.org.
  • Jussim, E. (1988). “The tyranny of the pictorial”: American photojournalism from 1880 to 1920. In M. Fulton (Ed.), Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America (pp. 36–73). New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Lacayo, R. (1995). Resurgence: 1980–1995. In R. Lacayo & G. Russell (Eds.), Eyewitness (pp. 165–189). New York: Time Books.
  • McKoy, K. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • National Press Photographers Association (2004). NPPA board adopts new “modernized” code of ethics. July 10, nppa.org.
  • New York Times (2003). New York Times: Guidelines on our integrity. September 25, poynter.org.
  • Rasmussen, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Shoer Roth, D. (2006). Una aclaración necesaria para el lector. July 27, miami.com.
  • Sinco, L. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Sontag, S. (2003). Regarding the pain of others. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Steber, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] August, Miami.
  • Steele, B. (2004). Covering victims: Storytelling with power and respect. March 31, poynter.org.
  • Strouse, C. (2006). Listen up, McClatchy. July 27, miaminewtimes.com.
  • Thames, R. (2006). Observer photo was altered improperly. July 28, charlotte.com.
  • Visual Editors (2006). Doctored photo costs photog a newsroom job. July 28, visualeditors.com.
  • Wells, H. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Whitley, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.

الفصل السابع: العلاقات: المصوِّر والأشخاص موضوع الصور

  • Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies (A. Lavers, Trans.). New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Bentley, P. F. (1993). Interview by author [cassette recording] November, Columbia, MO.
  • Finch, R. (2000). Rob Finch: 1999 newspaper photographer of the year [video] March, Copley Chicago Newspapers.
  • Hagen, C. (1992). Photographs and political families. The New York Times, October 25, p. H 28.
  • Heisler, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Kurtz, H. (1994). L. A. Times gets burned by disaster photograph. Washington Post, February 2, p. D 1.
  • MacLeod, S. (1994). The life and death of Kevin Carter. Time Magazine, September 12, pp. 70–73.
  • Malcolm, J. (1990). The journalist and the murderer. New York: Vintage.
  • Marshall, P. (2001). James Nachtwey (1948–). September 24, photography.about.com.
  • McBride, K. (2002). Shooting up on A-1: A controversial photo and a small New England town. November 25, poynteronline.org.
  • Nachtwey, J. (2001). War photographer (Documentary film, Christian Frei, producer), Icarus.
  • Panagopoulos, T. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Chicago.
  • Scanlan, C. (2006). June 7, Poynteronline.org.
  • Temple, J. (2006). The power of collaboration. April, digitaljournalist.org.
  • University of Missouri (2006). Missouri photo workshop. mophotoworkshop.org.

الفصل الثامن: حروب العراق

  • Anderson, T. (2007). Interview by author [email] July, Quito, Ecuador
  • Carter, B. & Steinberg, J. (2004). The struggle for Iraq: Issues of taste; to portray the horror, news media agonize. April 1, nytimes.com.
  • Colombo, S. (2005). Frontline access: Online gallery boasts soldiers’ wartime photos. February 11, ojr.org.
  • Committee to Protect Journalists (2007). Journalists killed: Statistics and archives. July 14, cpj.org.
  • Crawford, C. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Dotinga, R. (2004). Press wrestles with grim clips. May 26, csmonitor.com.
  • Fair (2005). LA Times dumps liberal columnist: Scheer out as Bush attacks Iraq War critics. November 17, fair.org.
  • Fox, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Friel, H. & Falk, R. (2004). The record of the paper: How the New York Times misreports US foreign policy. New York: Verso.
  • Fulton, M. (1988). Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Gannett Foundation (1991). The media at war: The press and the Persian Gulf conflict. New York: Author.
  • Howe, P. (2004). The reality of war, sort of. March, digitaljournalist.org.
  • Irby, K. (2004). War images as eyewitness. May 10, poynter.org.
  • Kifner, J. (2003). A thousand words; good as a gun: When cameras define a war. November 30, nytimes.com.
  • Lang, D. (2006a). Photo books show two different Iraqs. March 20, pdnonline.com.
  • Lang, D. (2006b). Q & A with Toby Morris, photographer shot in Iraq. March 21, pdnonline.com.
  • Lang, D. (2006c). War photographer Catherine Leroy dies in California. July 10, pdnonline.com.
  • Lester, P. M. (1994). Military censorship of photographs. commfaculty.fullerton.edu.
  • Lewis, J. (2004, April 5). Front page horror. slate.com.
  • Loomis, R. (2007). Web stories: Rick Loomis. kcet.org.
  • McBride, K. (2003). Did powerful image present an unbalanced view? April 14, poynter.org.
  • Reporters Without Borders (2006). Violence still increasing, 63 journalists killed, more than 1300 physically attacked or threatened. January 4, rsf.org.
  • Reynolds, P. (2006). The return to Abu Ghraib. February 15, news. bbc.co.uk.
  • Rosenblum, M. (1993). Who stole the news. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Rosenblum, N. (1984). A world history of photography. New York: Abbeville.
  • Sector, C. (2006). More Abu Ghraib prison abuse photos leaked. February 15, abcnews.go.com.
  • Shapiro, A. (2004). Vivid photos remain etched in memory. May 10, npr.org.
  • Shook, P. H. (2004). Readers respond to Fallujah photos. April 13, poynter.org.
  • Sontag, S. (2003). Regarding the pain of others. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
  • Theo, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Chicago.
  • Thompson, M. (2004). Discussion is the policy. April 2, poynter.org.
  • Tomkins, A. (2003). Tough call on Hussein corpse photos. July 24, poynter.org.
  • Winn, S. (2004). Photos that will haunt us more than words ever could. May 19, sfgate.
  • Zucchino, D. (2007). Web stories: Rick Loomis. kcet.org.

الفصل التاسع: المواقع الإلكترونية والمدونات

  • Ahrens, F. (2006). Gannett to change its papers’ approach. November 7, washingtonpost.com.
  • Carter, B. & Steinberg, J. (2004). The struggle for Iraq: Issues of taste; to portray the horror, news media agonize. April 1, nytimes.com.
  • Colombo, S. (2005). Frontline access: Online gallery boasts soldiers’ wartime photos. February 11, ojr.org.
  • The Economist (2006). Special report: The newspaper industry, more media, less news. The Economist, August 26, pp. 52–54.
  • Fallows, D. & Rainie, L. (2004). Reports: Major news events. July 8, pewinternet.org.
  • Fisher, G. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Fox, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Gahran, A. (2006). New Pew blogger study. July 20, poynter.org.
  • Glaser, M. (2005). Porn site offers soldiers free access in exchange for photos of dead Iraqis. September 20, ojr.org.
  • Grier, T. (2006). Can we all just learn to interact? June 13, ojr.org.
  • Healy, P. & Zeleny, J. (2007). Novel debate format, but same old candidates. July 24, nytimes.com.
  • Howe, P. (2004). The reality of war, sort of. March, digitaljournalist.org.
  • Kennedy, T. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Washington, DC.
  • Kirtz, B. (2006). Fear not the new media. October 19, poynter.org.
  • Maceda, J. (2004). Terrorists and the Internet. June 24, msnbc.msn.com.
  • Melamed, S. (2006). A sea of change for paper’s web sites. July 14, medialifemagazine.com.
  • Pickler, N. (2007). YouTube questions take a different tack. July 23, Associated Press.
  • Rasmussen, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Reporters Without Borders (2006). Violence still increasing: 63 journalists killed, more than 1300 physically attacked or threatened. January 4, rsf.org.
  • Riley. M. (2006). Lessons from a newsroom’s digital frontline. Spring, nieman.harvard.edu.
  • Simon, E. (2004). Digital cameras change perception of war. May 7, msnbc.msn.com.
  • Sites, K. (2007). Journalist or activist? April 3, hotzone.yahoo.com.
  • Smith, M. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, New York.
  • Vaina, D. (2007). Newspapers and blogs: Closer than we think? April 23, ojr.org.
  • Visual Editors (2006). The facts of life … blogging, newspapers and convergence. July, visualeditors.com.
  • Weiss, K. R. (2004). Interview by author [cassette recording] June, Los Angeles.
  • Weiss, K. R. (2007). Telephone interview by author. August, Miami.
  • Zelizer, B. (2004). Which words is a war photo worth? Journalists must set the standard. April 28, ojr.org.

الخاتمة

  • Carlebach, M. L. (1997). American photojournalism comes of age. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Chapnick, H. (1988). Forward. In M. Fulton (Ed.), Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Chomsky, N. (1979). Ideological conformity in America. Nation, January 27.
  • Commission on Freedom of the Press (1947). A free and responsible press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Fox, T. (2006). Telephone interview by author [digital recording] May, Miami.
  • Fulton, M. (1988). Eyes of time: Photojournalism in America. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
  • Gahran, A. (2006). New Pew blogger study. July 20, poynter.org.
  • Gough, P. (2007). Fox reality show roils Texas town. June 11, yahoonews.com.
  • Howe, P. (2004). The reality of war, sort of. March, digitaljournalist.org.
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