قراءات إضافية

ثمة كتاب أو مقالة جديدة تخرج للنور كل ساعة كل يوم تقريبًا. ولن تستطيع مطالعتها كلها بطبيعة الحال، ولا نستطيع نحن أيضًا. كيف إذن نختار ما تَحْسُن قراءته؟ نقدم هنا للقارئ نخبة من القراءات الإضافية في شكل سردي كي نعطيه إحساسًا بمحتوى الكتب التي نوصي بها وعلة استمالتها لنا من الناحية النقدية.

حياة شكسبير

The standard life of Shakespeare is still Samuel Schoenbaum, Shakespeare: A Documentary Life (1975; there’s also a Compact Documentary Life, 1987): Schoenbaum gives the documentary evidence and assesses difficult questions with even-handed restraint. His Shakespeare’s Lives (1991; paperback 1993) is a perfect supplement, taking as its subject the history of Shakespearean biography, and enjoying many of the more eccentric interpretations of Shakespeare’s life. Other recommended biographical works include James Shapiro on Shakespeare’s most productive year, 1599: A Year in the Life of William Shakespeare (2005; paperback 2006), Stephen Greenblatt’s Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare (2004; paperback 2005), and Michael Wood’s book accompanying his television series In Search of Shakespeare (2003). We quote often from the detailed work of our colleague Katherine Duncan-Jones: her biography of a less than likeable Shakespeare is Shakespeare: An Ungentle Life (2010 – a revised edition of her 2001 Ungentle Shakespeare), and her account of Shakespeare’s immediate reputation is Shakespeare: Upstart Crow to Sweet Swan, 1592–1623 (2011). Park Honan’s Shakespeare: A Life (2000) is especially good on the early years in Stratford; Jonathan Bate’s Soul of the Age: The Life, Mind and World of William Shakespeare (2008; paperback 2009) looks at Shakespeare and his context through the life-stages identified by Jaques in As You Like It (“All the world’s a stage, / And all the men and women merely players”; 2.7.139-40). Charles Nicholl’s in-depth analysis of a court case in which Shakespeare was called as a witness (a somewhat evasive one, it has to be said) is in The Lodger: Shakespeare on Silver Street (2008). Lois Potter’s The Life of William Shakespeare: A Critical Biography (2012) is not just (just!) a biography of Shakespeare: it is a biography of his theater world, informed by Potter’s unrivaled theatrical understanding.

شكسبير في عمله

The conditions of writing and printing drama are well covered by the contributors to David Kastan (ed.), A Companion to Shakespeare (1999), and Kastan’s Shakespeare and the Book (2001) is a readable account of changes in editing and bibliography and why they matter. The British Library’s digital quartos website (http://www.bl.uk/treasures/shakespeare/homepage.html) allows access to all the early printed editions of Shakespeare: you can view a number of digital facsimiles of the First Folio online via the Folger Shakespeare Library (www.folger.edu). Lukas Erne’s controversial Shakespeare as Literary Dramatist (2007) has turned old notions of the relation between long and short versions of Shakespeare’s plays on their head; he posits a Shakespeare who was interested in the publication of his plays.
John Jowett’s Shakespeare and Text (2007) is accessible and learned; his editions of Timon of Athens (2004) and Thomas More (2011) extend the discussion of collaborative working practices. Andrew Gurr’s The Shakespeare Company, 1594–1642 (2004) studies Shakespeare’s works from the point of view of the structure and methods of the Chamberlain’s, later King’s, Men. Tiffany Stern’s Documents of Performance in Early Modern England (2009) is one of those books that changes totally how you think about the early modern play – she shows it not to be a unified text as published by Arden or World’s Classics, but rather an assemblage of fragments: songs, letters as props, parts, epilogues, prologues. David Crystal is the expert on Shakespeare and language, in a vast array of works including Shakespeare’s Words (with Ben Crystal, 2002) and “Think on My Words”: Exploring Shakespeare’s Language (2008); Frank Kermode’s Shakespeare’s Language (2001) is a more evocative and associative take on Shakespeare’s poetic use of rhetoric and vocabulary.

شكسبير في المسرح

Classic books on the Elizabethan theater are by Andrew Gurr again: The Shakespearean Stage, (4th edn., 2009) and Playgoing in Shakespeare’s London (3rd edn., 2004). Christie Carson and Farah Karim-Cooper’s Shakespeare’s Globe: A Theatrical Experiment (2008) is full of insights from a decade of productions in the rebuilt Globe on London’s Bankside. Tiffany Stern’s Making Shakespeare: From Stage to Page (2004) understands the literary and theatrical contexts for Shakespeare’s work, and her Shakespeare in Parts (with Simon Palfrey, 2007) is a groundbreaking study of the way Shakespeare’s actors understood their roles. Martin Wiggins’s Shakespeare and the Drama of his Time (2000) is recommended as a way to counter the myopia with which we often consider Shakespeare, and Arthur Kinney’s Renaissance Drama: An Anthology of Plays and Entertainments (2nd edn., 2005), is the best place to sample contemporary writers.
Cambridge University Press’s series Players of Shakespeare (6 vols., 1985–2004), supplemented by Michael Dobson’s Performing Shakespeare’s Tragedies Today (2006), provide a series of unique perspectives. Written by actors reflecting on their roles, these essays combine sophisticated analysis of individual actors’ roles with a deep understanding of the play in which they perform. Carol Rutter’s Clamorous Voices: Shakespeare’s Women Today (1988) gives Shakespeare’s female characters the same treatment: conversations between actors about their interpretation of, for example, Measure for Measure’s Isabella or As You Like It’s Rosalind, are revelatory about the sexual politics of specific productions at specific historical moments. Barbara Hodgdon, W.B. Worthen, Carol Rutter, and Bridget Escolme are all writers on Shakespeare in the theater who are methodologically sophisticated and genuinely revealing about performance: any of their works is well worth reading.

تفسير شكسبير

There is no single way of interpreting Shakespeare: here we propose some recent survey volumes, all of which introduce a range of interpretative methods and frameworks and offer extensive suggestions in turn for further reading. Finally, we highlight some specific critical works to which we find ourselves returning for their acumen and provocation.
There are any number of guides to Shakespeare: particularly useful are Robert Shaughnessy’s The Routledge Guide to William Shakespeare (2011), which works through the plays and their historical, theatrical, and critical contexts; Stanley Wells and Lena Cowen Orlin’s Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide (2003), which tries to set out, with detailed examples, different interpretative approaches; and The New Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare (2011), edited by Margreta de Grazia and Stanley Wells, which covers different historical and critical aspects and has good suggestions for further reading. Russ McDonald collects significant twentieth-century criticism in his Shakespeare: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory, 1945–2000 (2003). There are two excellent series, the Oxford Shakespeare Topics (Oxford University Press) and Arden Critical Companions (Arden, Bloomsbury), giving up-to-date interventions in a range of topics, from biography to religion to literary theory. Works such as Dympna Callaghan (ed.), A Feminist Companion to Shakespeare (2000), Sonia Massai (ed.), World-Wide Shakespeares: Local Appropriations in Film and Performance (2005), and Ania Loomba and Martin Orkin (eds.), Post-Colonial Shakespeares (1998), give a sense of how the field has changed. We, and our students, love Doing Shakespeare, Simon Palfrey’s brilliant book of close reading (2nd edn., 2011); Marjorie Garber’s collection of provocative essays, Profiling Shakespeare (2008), is similarly lively. Michael Neill’s Putting History to the Question: Power, Politics and Society in English Renaissance Drama (2000) offers lucid, humanely historicist arguments.
Gary Taylor’s Reinventing Shakespeare: A Cultural History from the Restoration to the Present (1990; paperback 1991) reads like a critical version of Virginia Woolf’s novel Orlando, in which our hero morphs through centuries. Anything by Taylor is well worth reading: here he combines performance history, publication history, and political history; as an added bonus, each chapter is written in the style of the period it chronicles. Alexander Leggatt has published on every Shakespeare genre over thirty years: Shakespeare’s Comedy of Love (1974, reprinted 2005), Shakespeare’s Political Drama (1988), and Shakespeare’s Tragedies (2005). His critical interpretations are based on the words in the play and the play’s theatrical effects: no other critic could get away with this limited focus, but Leggatt’s critical insights show you why he can. A. D. Nuttall’s Shakespeare the Thinker (2007) and Tony Tanner’s Prefaces to Shakespeare (2010) each offer a play-by-play approach, highly recommended if you require a refresher before going to the theater. Nuttall focuses on Shakespeare’s ideas; Tanner on the language in which those ideas are expressed.
Our final injunction was to read Shakespeare himself: there is a plethora of available editions, each aimed at a particular readership. Although publishers offer Shakespeare series in individual volumes, it’s hard to recommend any one series uniformly: you will have your own criteria – portability, price, font size, electronic or paper, amount of intrusive explanation, page design – for choosing. We are drawn to different editions for different reasons: New Penguin for carrying to lectures, with their up-to-date and crisp introductions; Bedford St Martin’s “Texts and Contexts” series for its inclusion of historical material to contextualize each play; Arden series 3 for extensive scholarship and annotation. The “Shakespeare in Production” series from Cambridge University Press does not cover every play in the canon, but for those currently available in this series it gives a reading experience referenced to the myriad interpretations on stage: each line is keyed to how it has been interpreted by actors and directors, thus offering a quickly accessible range of interpretative possibilities. Elizabeth Schafer’s The Taming of the Shrew (2002), for instance, is a particularly good volume to start with. You may wonder whether or why you would need to buy a new edition: is not a text from school or college days adequate? But interpretation of Shakespeare has developed, and new things are being discovered, as this book has shown: these changes and developments also affect the text we read. Publishers therefore are constantly updating and recommissioning editions to reflect this evolution.
Three academic journals dominate the market for new work: Shakespeare Quarterly, published by the Folger Shakespeare Library, Shakespeare Studies (Farleigh Dickinson University Press), and Shakespeare Survey (Cambridge University Press); Shakespeare (Routledge) is a relatively new entrant. The professional association in the USA is the Shakespeare Association of America: there are Shakespeare associations in India, Japan, Germany, Australia and New Zealand, Norway, Korea, Southern Africa, and many other countries. The British Shakespeare Association (http://www.britishshakespeare.ws/) has a wide base of teachers, theater practitioners, academics, and enthusiasts: the website highlights new work, Shakespeare in the news, and events and recordings.

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