الفصل الأول: لغز مختفٍ في وضح النهار
(1)Thomas Nagel, “What Is It Like to Be a Bat?,” The Philosophical Review 83, no. 4 (1974): 435–50.
(2)Rebecca Goldstein, “The Hard Problem of Consciousness and the Solitude of the Poet,” Tin House 13, no. 3 (2012): 3.
(3)The great mystery is usually phrased, “Why is there something rather than nothing?” But the more interesting question to me (and the question that is analogous to the hard problem) is: How could something come out of nothing? In other words, does it even make sense to ask the question? How do we even conceive of a process by which something is born out of nothing?
(4)David Chalmers, “Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness,” Journal of Consciousness Studies 2, no. 3 (1995): 200–19. See also Galen Strawson, chapter 4, Mental Reality (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994): 93–96.
الفصل الثاني: الأحكام الحَدْسية والأوهام
(1)Ap Dijksterhuis and Loran F. Nordgren, “A Theory of Unconscious Thought,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 1, no. 2 (June 2006): 95–109; Erik Dane, Kevin W. Rockmann, and Michael G. Pratt, “When Should I Trust My Gut?,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 119, no. 2 (November 2012): 187–94, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2012.07.009.
(2)Liz Fields, “What Are the Odds of Surviving a Plane Crash?,” ABC News, 12 March 2014, https://abcnews.go.com/International/odds-surviving-plane-crash/story?id=22886654.
(3)Daniel Chamovitz, What a Plant Knows: A Field Guide to the Sense (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2012), 68-69.
(4)Gareth Cook, “Do Plants Think?,” Scientific American, 5 June 2012, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/do-plants-think-daniel-chamovitz/.
(5)Suzanne Simard, “How Trees Talk to Each Other,” TED talk, June 2016, www.ted.com/talks/suzanne_simard_how_trees_talk_to_each_other.
(6)Nic Fleming, “Plants Talk to Each Other Using an Internet of Fungus,” BBC News, 11 November 2014, http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20141111-plants-have-a-hidden-internet; Paul Stamets, “6 Ways Mushrooms Can Save the World,” TED talk, March 2008, https://www.ted.com/talks/paul_stamets_on_6_ways_mushrooms_can_save_the_world.
(7)Lauren Goode, “How Google’s Eerie Robot Phone Calls Hint at AI’s Future,” Wired, 8 May 2018, https://www.wired.com/story/google-duplex-phone-calls-ai-future; Bahar Gholipour, “New AI Tech Can Mimic Any Voice,” Scientific American, 2 May 2017, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/new-ai-tech-can-mimic-any-voice.
(8)In other words, if consciousness comes at the end of a stream of information processing, does the fact that there is an experience make a difference to the brain processing that follows? Does consciousness affect the brain? See also Max Velmans, How Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains? (Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic, 2002), 8–20.
(9)Masao Migita, Etsuo Mizukami, and Yukio-Pegio Gunji, “Flexibility in Starfish Behavior by Multi-Layered Mechanism of Self-Organization,” Biosystems 82, no. 2 (November 2005): 107–15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystems.2005.05.012.
الفصل الثالث: هل الوعي حرٌّ؟
(1)David Eagleman, The Brain: The Story of You (New York: Pantheon, 2015), 53.
(2)Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a noninvasive method of recording electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the scalp.
(3)See, for example, Itzhak Fried, Roy Mukamel, and Gabriel Kreiman, “Internally Generated Preactivation of Single Neurons in Human Medial Frontal Cortex Predicts Volition,” Neuron 69, no. 3 (February 2011): 548–62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2010.11.045; Aaron Schurger, Myrto Mylopoulos, and David Rosenthal, “Neural Antecedents of Spontaneous Voluntary Movement: A New Perspective,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20, no. 2 (February 2016): 77–79, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2015.11.003.
(4)Quoted in Susan Blackmore, Conversations on Consciousness (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 252-53; see also Daniel Wegner and Thalia Wheatley, “Apparent Mental Causation: Sources of the Experience of Will,” American Psychologist 54, no. 7 (July 1999): 480–92.
(5)See, for instance, Daniel Wegner, The Illusion of Conscious Will (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003), 3–15.
(6)For a fuller analysis of this issue, see, for instance, Sam Harris, Free Will (New York: Free Press, 2012).
الفصل الرابع: رفيقٌ في الرحلة
(1)Kathleen McAuliffe, This Is Your Brain on Parasites (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016), 57–82.
(4)Natalie Angier, “In Parasite Survival, Ploys to Get Help from a Host,” New York Times, 26 June 2007, https://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/26/science/26angi.html.
(5)Henry Fountain, “Parasitic Butterflies Keep Options Open with Different Hosts,” New York Times, 8 January 2008, https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/08/science/08obmimi.html.
(6)Mary Bates, “Meet 5 ‘Zombie’ Parasites That Mind-Control Their Hosts,” National Geographic, 2 November 2014, https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141031-zombies-parasites-animals-science-halloween/.
(7)Melinda Wenner, “Infected with Insanity,” Scientific American Mind, May 2008, 40–47, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/infected-with-insanity/.
(8)“PANDAS—Questions and Answers,” National Institute of Mental Health, NIH Publication No. OM 16-4309, September 2016, https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/pandas/pandas-qa-508_01272017_154202.pdf.
(9)David Chalmers, The Conscious Mind (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 198-99.
الفصل الخامس: من نحن؟
(1)Kathleen A. Garrison et al., “Meditation Leads to Reduced Default Mode Network Activity Beyond an Active Task,” Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 15, no. 3 (September 2015): 712, https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-015-0358-3; Judson A. Brewer et al., “Meditation Experience Is Associated with Differences in Default Mode Network Activity and Connectivity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 50 (13 December 2011): 20254–59, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1112029108.
(2)Robin Carhart-Harris et al., “Neural Correlates of the LSD Experience Revealed by Multimodal Imaging,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, no. 17 (26 April 2016): 4853–58, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1518377113.
(3)Ian Sample, “Psychedelic Drugs Induce ‘Heightened State of Consciousness,’ Brain Scans Show,” Guardian, 19 April 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/apr/19/brain-scans-reveal-mind-opening-response-to-psychedelic-drug-trip-lsd-ketamine-psilocybin.
(4)Michael Pollan, How to Change Your Mind (New York: Penguin Press, 2018), 304-5.
(5)Erin Brodwin, “Why Psychedelics like Magic Mushrooms Kill the Ego and Fundamentally Transform the Brain,” Business Insider, 17 January 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/psychedelics-depression-anxiety-alcoholism-mental-illness-2017-1.
(6)Pollan, How to Change Your Mind, 305.
(7)Brodwin, “Why Psychedelics like Magic Mushrooms Kill the Ego and Fundamentally Transform the Brain.”
(8)Michael Harris, “How Conjoined Twins Are Making Scientists Question the Concept of Self,” The Walrus, 6 November 2017, https://thewalrus.ca/how-conjoined-twins-are-making-scientists-question-the-concept-of-self/.
(9)Andrew Olendzki, Untangling Self (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2016), 2. Olendzki goes on to say on page 3: “There is no intrinsic identity in anything. There are only the labels we decide upon to refer to things: clouds, raindrops, puddles. All persons, places, and things are merely names that we give to certain patterns we call out from the incessant flux of interdependent natural events. Why are human beings any different from this? … Surely ‘Joe’ is just something that occurs when conditions come together in certain ways, and Joe no longer occurs when those conditions change enough … Under some conditions Joe is living; when the conditions supporting Joe’s life no longer occur, Joe will no longer be living. He is not the sort of thing that can go somewhere else (to heaven or to another body, for example), except perhaps in the most abstract sense of the recycling of his constituent components. All this is as natural as a rainstorm in the summer.”
(10)The BrainPort invention belongs to a company called Wicab in Wisconsin.
(11)Eagleman, The Brain: The Story of You, 187.
(12)David Eagleman, “Can We Create New Senses for Humans?,” TED talk, March 2015, https://www.ted.com/talks/david_eagleman_can_we_create_new_senses_for_humans.
(13)For more, see Olaf Blankee, “Out-of-Body Experience: Master of Illusion,” Nature 480, no. 7376 (7 December 2011), https://www.nature.com/news/out-of-body-experience-master-of-illusion-1.9569 ; Ye Yuan and Anthony Steed, “Is the Rubber Hand Illusion Induced by Immersive Virtual Reality?,” in IEEE Virtual Reality 2010 Proceedings, eds. Benjamin Lok, Gudrun Klinker, and Ryohei Nakatsu (Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2010), 95–102.
(14)Anil Seth, “Your Brain Hallucinates Your Conscious Reality,” TED talk, April 2017, https://www.ted.com/talks/anil_seth_how_your_brain_hallucinates_your_conscious_reality.
(15)See, for example, Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009).
(16)Christof Koch, The Quest for Consciousness (Englewood, CO: Roberts & Company, 2004), 287–94.
(18)Michael Gazzaniga, “The Split Brain Revisited,” Scientific American, July 1998, 54.
(19)McGilchrist, Master, 220-21.
الفصل السادس: هل الوعي في كلِّ مكان؟
(1)The Oxford English Dictionary defines panpsychism as “the theory of belief that there is an element of consciousness in all matter.” See also Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, s.v. “panpsychism,” revised 18 July 2017, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/panpsychism/.
(2)Philip Goff, “Panpsychism Is Crazy, but It’s Also Most Probably True,” Aeon, 1 March 2017, https://aeon.co/ideas/panpsychism-is-crazy-but-its-also-most-probably-true. Goff makes a strong case for a panpsychic view in this article and elsewhere, but many part company with him (myself included) when he defends the hypothesis set out in his essay on “cosmopsychism” (“Is the Universe a Conscious Mind?,” Aeon, 8 February 2018, https://aeon.co/essays/cosmopsychism-explains-why-the-universe-is-fine-tuned-for-life) that “the Universe is conscious, and … the consciousness of humans and animals is derived not from the consciousness of fundamental particles, but from the consciousness of the Universe itself”—a universe that, Goff speculates, is an agent “aware of the consequences of its actions.” The argument seems flawed to me, and Goff himself has had a change of heart, which he wrote about in a blog post on 24 April 2018: https://conscienceandconsciousness.com/2018/04/24/a-change-of-heart-on-fine-tuning/.
(3)David Chalmers, “Strong and Weak Emergence,” in The Re-Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion, eds. Philip Clayton and Paul Davies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).
(4)David Skrbina, Panpsychism in the West (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2017), 189-90. Galen Strawson also draws the conclusion that “there is no radical emergence.” See “Physicalist panpsychism,” in Susan Schneider and Max Velmans, eds., The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017), pp. 384-85.
(5)Skrbina, Panpsychism in the West, 194-95.
(6)David Chalmers differentiates between “weak emergence” and “strong emergence.” Describing weak emergence, Chalmers writes, “The ‘emergent’ properties are in fact deducible (perhaps with great difficulty) from the low-level properties, perhaps in conjunction with knowledge of initial conditions, so strong emergence [in the form of consciousness] is not at play here” (Chalmers, “Strong and Weak”).
(7)Galen Strawson, “The Consciousness Deniers,” NYR Daily (blog), New York Review of Books, 13 March 2018, https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2018/03/13/the-consciousness-deniers/.
(8)Blackmore, Conversations on Consciousness, 28.
(9)Paradoxically, it seems to me that declaring consciousness to be an illusion is just one step away from asserting that everything is potentially conscious.
(10)Galen Strawson, “Physicalist panpsychism,” in Schneider and Velmans, eds., The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness, pp. 376–84.
(11)V. S. Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain (New York: W. W. Norton, 2011), 248.
(12)Peter Hankins, “Francis Crick,” Conscious Entities (blog), 9 August 2004, http://www.consciousentities.com/crick.htm. See also Francis Crick, The Astonishing Hypothesis (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995), chap. 17.
(13)“Zap and zip” is based on the work of Giulio Tononi’s integrated information theory (IIT). See Giulio Tononi et al., “Integrated Information Theory: From Consciousness to Its Physical Substrate,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, no. 7 (July 2016): 450–61, https://www.nature.com/articles/nrn.2016.44.
(14)Christof Koch, “How to Make a Consciousness Meter,” Scientific American, November 2017, 28–30.
(15)Steve Paulson, “The Spiritual, Reductionist Consciousness of Christof Koch,” Nautilus, 6 April 2017, http://nautil.us/issue/47/consciousness/the-spiritual-reductionist-consciousness-of-christof-koch.
(17)Chalmers, Conscious Mind, 294-95.
(18)Even if we concede that it makes sense to view consciousness as an evolved function in aid of survival, the idea that a physical system could develop a property that is so un-material-like suggests to me that consciousness was there all along as a property to be called on by the physical system—which brings us back full circle to a version of panpsychism.
(19)Adam Frank, “Minding Matter,” Aeon, 13 March 2017, https://aeon.co/essays/materialism-alone-cannot-explain-the-riddle-of-consciousness.
(20)Skrbina, Panpsychism, 9, 17.
(22)Gregg Rosenberg, “Rethinking Nature: A Hard Problem within the Hard Problem,” in Explaining Consciousness: The “Hard Problem,” ed. Jonathan Shear (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), 287–300.
الفصل السابع: ما وراء شمولية الوعي
(1)Rebecca Goldstein, personal communication with author, 16 March 2018.
(2)Galen Strawson, “Consciousness Isn’t a Mystery. It’s Matter,” New York Times, 16 May 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/16/opinion/consciousness-isnt-a-mystery-its-matter.html. See also Galen Strawson, “Consciousness Never Left,” in K. Almqvist and A. Haag, eds., The Return of Consciousness: A New Science on Old Questions (Stockholm: Ax:son Johnson Foundation, 2017): 87–103. Strawson and others also prefer to state the mystery in terms of why consciousness exists, as opposed to what it is. I have gone back and forth about how to phrase the mystery myself. The problem I have with posing the question in terms of why is its religious undertone. It also evades the hard problem by inviting the ready response, “Well, of course the reason we’re conscious is because our neurons are doing this special thing that causes us to be conscious.” When I put it in terms of what, however, I mean, “What causes consciousness? What is the overall big-picture explanation?” The what question also more readily opens people’s minds to all the follow-up questions: Is consciousness intrinsic to matter? Where does it come from? What exactly is it from top to bottom?
(3)Skrbina, Panpsychism, 260.
(4)Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, s.v. “panpsychism,” https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/panpsychism/#OtheArguForPanp.
(5)David Chalmers, “The Combination Problem for Panpsychism,” in Panpsychism: Contemporary Perspectives, eds. Godehard Bruntrup and Ludwig Jaskolla (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
(6)See also William Hirstein, Mindmelding: Consciousness, Neuroscience, and the Mind’s Privacy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
(7)One example that would fall into this category is a new theory Donald Hoffman is developing called “conscious realism.” His theory rests on the idea that while evolution selects for fitness in organisms, it does not select for perceptions that present us with the truth about the fundamental nature of reality. According to Hoffman’s work, in order for evolution by natural selection to effectively select for fitness, it must actually select against the perception of reality as it is. Therefore, everything we perceive, including space and time, is an incorrect view of the deeper fundamental reality in which we exist. Hoffman therefore argues that the fundamental components of reality cannot be described in terms of physical matter in space-time but instead must be a form of consciousness with interacting systems he has termed “conscious agents.” Whether or not Hoffman’s current theory turns out to be correct, his work is scientifically rigorous and offers a promising line of research that may at least help us grab a foothold where we would otherwise seem to have no hope of gaining any ground—and, in the meantime, he is, hopefully, pushing against the limits of our intuitions and expanding the possibilities of how we are willing to think about the universe. See Donald Hoffman, The Case Against Reality: Why Evolution Hid the Truth from Our Eyes (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2019).
(8)Anil Seth, “Conscious Spoons, Really? Pushing Back against Panpsychism,” NeuroBanter (blog), 1 February 2018, https://neurobanter.com/2018/02/01/conscious-spoons-really-pushing-back-against-panpsychism/.
(9)Rebecca Goldstein, “Reduction, Realism, and the Mind” (PhD dissertation, Princeton University, 1977), with an addition from a personal communication with the author, 16 March 2018.
(10)Murray Shanahan, “Conscious Exotica: From Algorithms to Aliens, Could Humans Ever Understand Minds That Are Radically Unlike Our Own?,” Aeon, 19 October 2016, https://aeon.co/essays/beyond-humans-what-other-kinds-of-minds-might-be-out-there.
الفصل الثامن: الوعي والزمن
(1)I was trained to teach mindfulness meditation to children by Susan Kaiser Greenland, and I have been volunteering for Greenland’s Inner Kids foundation since 2005. See https://www.susankaisergreenland.com.
(2)Dean Buonomano, Your Brain Is a Time Machine (New York: W. W. Norton, 2017), 216.
(3)John A. Wheeler, “Law Without Law,” in Quantum Theory and Measurement, eds. John A. Wheeler and Wojciech H. Zurek (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), 182–213.
(4)Vincent Jacques et al., “Experimental Realization of Wheeler’s Delayed-Choice Gedanken Experiment,” Science 315, no. 5814: 966–68, 16 February 2007, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1136303.
(5)Rob Reid and Donald Hoffman, “The Case against Reality,” After On (podcast), episode 26, 30 April 2018; see also John A. Wheeler, “Law Without Law,” 190.
(6)Ramachandran, Tell-Tale Brain, 249.