الفصل الأول: مفهوم السعادة
(1)Anna De Chavez, Kathryn Backett-Milburn, Odette Parry, and Stephen Plate, “Understanding and Researching Wellbeing: Its Usage in Different Disciplines and Potential for Health Research and Health Promotion,” Health Education Journal 64 (2005): 70–87, https://doi.org/10.1177/001789690506400108.
(2)Tyler J. VanderWeele, Katelyn Long, and Michael J. Balboni, “On Tradition Specific Measures of Spiritual Wellbeing,” in Measuring Wellbeing: Interdisciplinary Perspectives from the Social Sciences and the Humanities, ed. Matthew Lee, K. D. Kubansky, and Tyler J. VanderWeele (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021), 482–498.
(3)Philip Brey. “The Social Ontology of Virtual Environments.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 62, no. 1 (2003): 269–282, https://doi.org/10.1111/1536-7150.t01-1-00011.
(4)Jerome Breuer and Sigmund Freud, “Studies on Hysteria,” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 2), ed. James Strachey (London: Hogarth Press, 1955), 308.
(5)Robert Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values (London: Random House, 1974).
(6)Corey L. M. Keyes, “Mental Illness and/or Mental Health? Investigating Axioms of the Complete State Model of Health,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73, no. 3 (2005): 539–548, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539.
(7)Matthew Iasiello and Joep Van Agteren, “Mental Health and/or Mental Illness: A Scoping Review of the Evidence and Implications of the Dual-Continua Model of Mental Health,” Evidence Base: A Journal of Evidence Reviews in Key Policy Areas 1 (2020): 1–45, https://doi.org/10.21307/eb-2020-001.
(8)James O. Pawelski, “Defining the ‘Positive’ in Positive Psychology: Part I. A Descriptive Analysis,” Journal of Positive Psychology 11, no. 4 (2016): 339–356, https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2015.1137627.
(9)Antonio R. Damasio, Descartes’ Error (New York: Random House, 2006).
(10)Tim Lomas, “Experiential Cartography and the Significance of ‘Untranslatable’ Words,” Theory and Psychology 28, no. 4 (2018): 476–495, https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354318772914.
(11)Bernard I. Murstein, “A Taxonomy of Love,” in The Psychology of Love, ed. Robert J. Sternberg and Michael L. Barnes (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press), 33.
الفصل الثاني: جذور السعادة
(1)Michael Muthukrishna, Joseph Henrich, and Edward Slingerland, “Psychology as a Historical Science,” Annual Review of Psychology 72 (2021): 717– 49, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-082820-111436.
(2)Jean-Jacques Hublin, Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer, Shara E. Bailey, Sarah E. Freidline, Simon Neubauer, Matthew M. Skinner, Inga Bergmann, et al., “New Fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the Pan-African Origin of Homo Sapiens, Nature 546, no. 7657 (2017): 289–292, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22336.
(3)Bruno David, Jean-Michel Geneste, Fiona Petchey, Jean-Jacques Delannoy, Bryce Barker, and Mark Eccleston, “How Old Are Australia’s Pictographs? A Review of Rock Art Dating,” Journal of Archaeological Science 40, no. 1 (2013): 3–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2012.08.019.
(4)William E. H. Stanner, The Dreaming and Other Essays (Melbourne: Black Inc., 2009).
(5)Henry F. Skerritt, Hetti Perkins, Fred R. Myers, and Narayan Khandekar, Everywhen: The Eternal Present in Indigenous Art from Australia (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016).
(6)Anil K. Gupta, “Origin of Agriculture and Domestication of Plants and Animals Linked to Early Holocene Climate Amelioration,” Current Science 87, no. 1 (2004): 54–59, www.jstor.org/stable/24107979.
(7)Jonathon M. Riley, “‘Love the Child Who Holds You by the Hand’: Intertextuality in the Odyssey and the Epic of Gilgamesh,” Studia Antiqua 12, no. 2 (2014): 20–31.
(8)Richard Wilhelm, The I Ching or Book of Changes (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950), lv.
(9)Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching: Translated with Notes by Arthur Waley (Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1997), 162.
(10)Bina Gupta and William C. Wilcox, “‘Tat tvam asi’: An Important Identity Statement or a Mere Tautology,” Philosophy East and West 34, no. 1 (1984): 85–94, https://doi.org/10.2307/1398491.
(11)Edwin F. Bryant, The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: A New Edition, Translation, and Commentary (New York: North Point Press, 2015).
(12)Hendrik. J. Koorevaar, “The Torah Model as Original Macrostructure of the Hebrew Canon: A Critical Evaluation,” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 122, no. 1 (2010): 64–80.
(13)David P. Wright, Inventing God’s Law: How the Covenant Code of the Bible Used and Revised the Laws of Hammurabi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).
(14)Ronald M. Eisenberg, The 613 Mitzvot: A Contemporary Guide to the Commandments of Judaism (Rockville, MD: Schreiber, 2005).
(15)M. T. Laws of the Luvav 8:15, cited in Michael Fishbane, The Exegetical Imagination: On Jewish Thought and Theology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998), 158.
(16)Karl Jaspers, Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (Munich: Piper, 1949).
(17)Sameet M. Kumar, “An Introduction to Buddhism for the CognitiveBehavioral Therapist,” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 9, no. 1 (2002): 40–43, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(02)80038-4.
(18)Bhikkhu Bodhi, Noble Eightfold Path: Way to the End of Suffering (Onalaska, WA: Pariyatti Publishing, 2011).
(19)Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 11.
(20)Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 6.
(21)Seneca, “On the Happy Life,” in Moral Essays (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1932), 115, cited in Darrin McMahon, Happiness: A History (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006), 55.
(22)Epictetus, Discourses (Oxford: Clarenden Press, 2016), cited in Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy (Oxford: Routledge Classics, 1945), 219.
(23)Charles Quarles, Sermon on the Mount (Nashville, TN: NAC Studies in Bible Theology, 2011), back cover.
(24)Darrin McMahon, Happiness: A History (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2011).
(25)Cited in Darrin McMahon, “From the Happiness of Virtue to the Virtue of Happiness: 400 bc–ad 1780,” Daedalus 133, no. 2 (2004): 5–17, 9.
(26)Safwah M. Kamil and Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, “Examination of the Ideology of the Calmness Concept Based on Quranic Paradise Imagery towards Establishing an Environmental Islamic Garden in Malaysia,” Advances in Environmental Biology 9, no. 23 (2015): 120–123.
(27)Pope Innocent III, On the Misery of the Human Condition: De Miseria Humane Conditionis (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 2007). Cited in Marvin Perry, Sources of the Western Tradition (Vol. 1) (London: Wadsworth, 2008), 288.
(28)Stuart Gillespie and Philip Hardie, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Lucretius (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
(29)Richard Tarnas, The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View (London: Random House, 2010).
(30)Francis Hutcheson, “The Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue,” in Moral Philosophy from Montaigne to Kant, ed. J. B. Schneewind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 365–386.
(31)Otto Rank, Will Therapy: An Analysis of the Therapeutic Process in Terms of Relationship (New York: W. W. Norton, 1936), 2.
(32)Cited in Howard Kirschenbaum, On Becoming Carl Rogers (New York: Delacorte, 1979), 95.
(33)Abraham Harold Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being (Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1962), 5.
(34)Hadley Cantril, The Pattern of Human Concerns (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1965).
(35)John F. Helliwell, Richard Layard, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, World Happiness Report 2021 (New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2021).
(36)Wade E. Pickren, “Indigenization and the History of Psychology,” Psychological Studies 54, no. 2 (2009): 87–95, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-009-0012-7.
(37)David Bakan, The Duality of Human Existence: Isolation and Communion in Western Man (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966).
(38)Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1980); Harry Triandis, “Collectivism v. Individualism: A Reconceptualisation of a Basic Concept in Cross-cultural Social Psychology,” in Cross-cultural Studies of Personality, Attitudes and Cognition, ed. Gajendra K. Verma and Christopher Bagley (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1988), 60–95; Vas Taras, Piers Steel, and Bradley L. Kirkman, “Improving National Cultural Indices Using a Longitudinal Metaanalysis of Hofstede’s Dimensions,” Journal of World Business 47, no. 3 (2012): 329–341, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2011.05.001.
(39)Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).
(40)Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine, and Ara Norenzayan, “Most People Are Not WEIRD,” Nature 466, no. 29 (2010), https://doi.org/10.1038/466029a.
(41)Tim Lomas, “Towards a Positive Cross-cultural Lexicography: Enriching Our Emotional Landscape through 216 ‘Untranslatable’ Words Pertaining to Well-being,” Journal of Positive Psychology 11, no. 5 (2016): 546–558, https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2015.1127993.
(42)Tim Lomas, “Experiential Cartography and the Significance of ‘Untranslatable’ Words,” Theory and Psychology 28, no. 4 (2018): 476–495, https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354318772914; Tim Lomas, “Towards a Cross-cultural Lexical Map of Wellbeing,” Journal of Positive Psychology 16, no. 5 (2021): 622–639, https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2020.1791944.
(43)Tim Lomas, “The Spectrum of Positive Affect: A Cross-cultural Lexical Analysis,” International Journal of Wellbeing 7, no. 3 (2017), https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v7i3.608; Tim Lomas, “The Value of Ambivalent Emotions: A Cross-cultural Lexical Analysis,” Qualitative Research in Psychology (2017): 1–25, https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2017.1400143; Tim Lomas, “The Flavours of Love: A Cross-cultural Lexical Analysis,” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 48, no. 1 (2018): 134–152, https://doi.org/10.1111/jtsb.12158; Tim Lomas, “The Dimensions of Prosociality: A Cross-cultural Lexical Analysis,” Current Psychology 40 (2021): 1336–1347, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0067-5; Tim Lomas, “The Elements of Eco-Connection: A Cross-cultural Lexical Enquiry,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 24 (2019): 5120, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245120; Tim Lomas, “The Roots of Virtue: A Cross-cultural Lexical Analysis,” Journal of Happiness Studies 20, no. 4 (2019): 1259–1279, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-018-9997-8; Tim Lomas, “The Dynamics of Spirituality: A Cross-cultural Lexical Analysis,” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 11, no. 2 (2019): 131–140, https://doi.org/10.1037/rel0000163.
الفصل الثالث: أشكال السعادة
(1)https://www.globalwellbeinginitiative.org; Louise Lambert, Tim Lomas, Margot P. van de Weijer, Holli-Anne Passmore, Mohsen Joshanloo, Jim Harter, and Ed Diener, “Towards a Greater Global Understanding of Wellbeing: A Proposal for a More Inclusive Measure,” International Journal of Wellbeing 10, no. 2 (2020): 1–18, https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v10i2.1037.
(2)Ed Diener, Assessing Well-Being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener (New York: Springer, 2009).
(3)David Watson, Lee Anna Clark, and Auke Tellegen, “Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47 (1988): 1063–1070, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063.
(4)Yukiko Uchida and Shinobu Kitayama, “Happiness and Unhappiness in East and West: Themes and Variations,” Emotion 9, no. 4 (2009): 441–456, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015634.
(5)Antonella Delle Fave, Ingrid Brdar, Marié P. Wissing, Ulisses Araujo, Alejandro Castro Solano, Teresa Freire, María Del Rocío Hernández-Pozo, et al., “Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness,” Frontiers in Psychology 7 (2016), https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00030.
(6)Eranda Jayawickreme and Laura Blackie, “Post-traumatic Growth as Positive Personality Change: Evidence, Controversies and Future Directions,” European Journal of Personality 28, no. 4 (2014): 312–331, https://doi.org/10.1002/per.1963.
(7)Paul T. P. Wong, “Toward a Dual-Systems Model of What Makes Life Worth Living,” in The Human Quest for Meaning: Theories, Research, and Applications, ed. Paul T. P. Wong (New York: Routledge, 2012), 3–22.
(8)Viktor E. Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985).
(9)Khalil Gibran, The Prophet (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926), 36.
(10)Lorraine L. Besser and Shigehiro Oishi, “The Psychologically Rich Life,” Philosophical Psychology 33, no. 8 (2020): 1053–1071, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2020.1778662.
(11)Paul T. P. Wong, “Positive Psychology 2.0: Towards a Balanced Interactive Model of the Good Life,” Canadian Psychology 52, no. 2 (2011): 69–81, 73.
(12)Rudolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1923).
(13)Émile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, trans. Carol Cosman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 47.
(14)Elisha D. Goldstein, “Sacred Moments: Implications on Well-being and Stress,” Journal of Clinical Psychology 63, no. 10 (2007): 1001–1019, https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20402.
(15)Richard M. Ryan and Christina Frederick, “On Energy, Personality, and Health: Subjective Vitality as a Dynamic Reflection of Well-being,” Journal of Personality 65, no. 3 (1997): 529–565, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00326.x.
(16)Ed Diener, Robert A. Emmons, Randy J. Larsen, and Sharon Griffin, “The Satisfaction with Life Scale,” Journal of Personality Assessment 49, no. 1 (1985): 71–75, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.
(17)Carol D. Ryff, “Happiness Is Everything, or Is It? Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-being,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, no. 6 (1989): 1069–1081, https://doi.org/10.1037/002235220.127.116.119.
(18)Martin E. Seligman, Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding of Happiness and Well-being (New York: Free Press, 2011), 17.
(19)Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The Psychology of Happiness (New York: Random House, 2013).
(20)Antoine Lutz, Heleen A. Slagter, John D. Dunne, and Richard J. Davidson, “Attention Regulation and Monitoring in Meditation,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12, no. 4 (2008): 163–169, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005.
(21)Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 12.
(22)Kurt Goldstein, Human Nature in the Light of Psychopathology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1940).
(23)Erik H. Erikson, Childhood and Society (New York: W. W. Norton, 1950); Lawrence Kohlberg, “Stage and Sequence: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach to Socialization,” in Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research, ed. David A. Goslin (London: Rand McNally, 1968), 347–480.
(24)Tim Lomas, “Life Balance and Harmony: Wellbeing’s Golden Thread,” International Journal of Wellbeing 11, no. 1 (2021): 50–68, https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v11i1.1477.
(25)Linnea Dunne, Lagom: The Swedish Art of Balanced Living (London: Running Press Adult, 2017)
(26)Chenyang Li, “The Ideal of Harmony in Ancient Chinese and Greek Philosophy,” Dao 7, no. 1 (2008): 81–98, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11712-008-9043-3.
(27)Catherine Juneau, Nicolas Pellerin, Elliott Trives, Matthieu Ricard, Rébecca Shankland, and Michael Dambrun, “Reliability and Validity of an Equanimity Questionnaire: The Two-Factor Equanimity Scale (EQUA-S),” PeerJ 8 (2020): e9405, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9405; Gisela Labouvie-Vief, Daniel Grühn, and Joseph Studer, “Dynamic Integration of Emotion and Cognition: Equilibrium Regulation in Development and Aging,” in The Handbook of Life-Span Development, Volume II: Social and Emotional Development, ed. Richard M. Lerner, Willis F. Overton, Alexandra M. Freund, and Michael E. Lamb (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010), 79–115; Sun-Mee Kang and Phillip R. Shaver, “Individual Differences in Emotional Complexity: Their Psychological Implications,” Journal of Personality 72, no. 4 (2004): 687–726, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00277.x; Jordi Quoidbach, June Gruber, Moïra Mikolajczak, Alexsandr Kogan, Ilios Kotsou, and Michael I. Norton, “Emodiversity and the Emotional Ecosystem,” Journal of Experimental Psychology 143, no. 6 (2014): 2057–2066, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038025.
(28)Jamie A. Gruman, Margaret N. Lumley, and M. Gloria González-Morales, “Incorporating Balance: Challenges and Opportunities for Positive Psychology,” Canadian Psychology 59, no. 1 (2018): 54–64.
(29)Yukiko Uchida and Yuji Ogihara, “Personal or Interpersonal Construal of Happiness: A Cultural Psychological Perspective,” International Journal of Wellbeing 2, no. 4 (2012): 354–369, https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v2.i4.5.
(30)Edward W. Said, Orientalism (London: Vintage, 1979).
(31)Takeshi Hamamura, “Are Cultures Becoming Individualistic? A Cross-Temporal Comparison of Individualism–Collectivism in the United States and Japan,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 16, no. 1 (2012): 3–24, https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868311411587.
الفصل الرابع: بنية السعادة
(1)Ken Wilber, “An Integral Theory of Consciousness,” Journal of Consciousness Studies 4, no. 1 (1997): 71–92.
(2)Juergen Fell, “Identifying Neural Correlates of Consciousness: The State Space Approach,” Consciousness and Cognition 13, no. 4 (2004): 709–729, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2004.07.001.
(3)Richard J. Davidson, “Affective Neuroscience and Psychophysiology: Toward a Synthesis,” Psychophysiology 40, no. 5 (2003): 655–665, https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-8986.00067; Marcie L. King, “The Neural Correlates of Well-being: A Systematic Review of the Human Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Literature,” Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 19, no. 4 (2019): 779–796, https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-019-00720-4.
(4)Philip Brickman, Dan Coates, and Ronnie Janoff-Bulman, “Lottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative?,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36(1978):917–927,https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1687.
(5)Richard E. Lucas, “Adaptation and the Set-Point Model of Subjective Well-being: Does Happiness Change after Major Life Events?,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 16, no. 2 (2007): 75–79, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00479.x.
(6)Feyza Corapci, Wolfgang Friedlmeier, Oana Benga, Catherine Strauss, Irina Pitica, and Georgiana Susa, “Cultural Socialization of Toddlers in Emotionally Charged Situations,” Social Development 27, no. 2 (2018): 262–278, https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12272.
(7)Margot van de Weijer, Lianne de Vries, and Meike Bartels, “Happiness and Wellbeing; The Value and Findings from Genetic Studies,” PsyArXiv Preprints, 2021, https://doi.org/10.31234/OSF.IO/ZVU8J.
(8)Robyn E. Wootton, Oliver S. P. Davis, Abigail L. Mottershaw, R. Adele H. Wang, and Claire M. A. Haworth, “Genetic and Environmental Correlations between Subjective Wellbeing and Experience of Life Events in Adolescence,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 26, no. 9 (2017): 1119–1127, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-0997-8.
(9)Michael Pluess, “Vantage Sensitivity: Environmental Sensitivity to Positive Experiences as a Function of Genetic Differences,” Journal of Personality 85, no. 1 (2017): 38–50, https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12218.
(10)Avshalom Caspi, Karen Sugden, Terrie E. Moffitt, Alan Taylor, Ian W. Craig, HonaLee Harrington, Joseph McClay, et al., “Influence of Life Stress on Depression: Moderation by a Polymorphism in the 5-HTT Gene,” Science 301, no. 5631 (2003): 386–389, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1083968; Robert C. Culverhouse, Nancy L. Saccone, Amy C. Horton, Yinjiao Ma, Kaarin J. Anstey, Tobias Banaschewski, Margit Burmeister, et al., “Collaborative Meta-analysis Finds No Evidence of a Strong Interaction between Stress and 5-HTTLPR Genotype Contributing to the Development of Depression,” Molecular Psychiatry 23, no. 1 (2018): 133–142, https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2017.44.
(11)Claudia M. Haase, Ursula Beermann, Laura R. Saslow, Michelle N. Shiota, Sarina R. Saturn, Sandy J. Lwi, James J. Casey, et al., “Short Alleles, Bigger Smiles? The Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Positive Emotional Expressions,” Emotion 15, no. 4 (2015): 438–448, https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000074.
(12)Bart M. L. Baselmans, Rick Jansen, Hill F. Ip, Jenny van Dongen, Abdel Abdellaoui, Margot van de Weijer, Yanchun Bao, et al., “Multivariate Genome-Wide Analyses of the Well-being Spectrum,” Nature Genetics 51 (2019): 445– 451, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0320-8.
(13)Lianne P. de Vries, Margot van de Weijer, and Meike Bartels, “The Biology of Well-being: A Systematic Review on the Association between Well-being and the Brain, Neurotransmitters, Hormones, the Immune System, and Microbiome,” forthcoming.
(14)Cosima Locher, Helen Koechlin, Sean R. Zion, Christoph Werner, Daniel S. Pine, Irving Kirsch, Ronald C. Kessler, and Joe Kossowsky, “Efficacy and Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, and Placebo for Common Psychiatric Disorders among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” JAMA Psychiatry 74, no. 10 (2017): 1011–1020, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2432.
(15)Oscar Arias-Carrión, Maria Stamelou, Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Manuel Menéndez-González, and Ernst Pöppel, “Dopaminergic Reward System: A Short Integrative Review,” International Archives of Medicine 3, no. 24 (2010), https://doi.org/10.1186/1755-7682-3-24.
(16)Kerstin Uvnäs-Moberg, Anette Ekström-Bergström, Marie Berg, Sarah Buckley, Zada Pajalic, Eleni Hadjigeorgiou, Alicja Kotłowska, et al., “Maternal Plasma Levels of Oxytocin during Physiological Childbirth—A Systematic Review with Implications for Uterine Contractions and Central Actions of Oxytocin,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 19, no. 1 (2019), 285, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2365-9.
(17)Matthias Gamer and Christian Büchel, “Oxytocin Specifically Enhances Valence-Dependent Parasympathetic Responses,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 37, no. 1 (2012): 87–93, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.05.007.
(18)Adam S. Sprouse-Blum, Greg Smith, Daniel Sugai, and F. Don Parsa, “Understanding Endorphins and Their Importance in Pain Management,” Hawaii Medical Journal 69, no. 3 (2010): 70–71, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20397507.
(19)Maria Scherma, Paolo Masia, Valentina Satta, Walter Fratta, Paola Fadda, and Gianluigi Tanda, “Brain Activity of Anandamide: A Rewarding Bliss?,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 40, no. 3 (2019): 309–323, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-018-0075-x.
(20)Arne Dietrich and William F. McDaniel, “Endocannabinoids and Exercise,” British Journal of Sports Medicine 38 (2004): 536–541, http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.011718.
(21)Archibald Hart, Adrenaline and Stress: The Exciting New Breakthrough That Helps You Overcome Stress Damage (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1995).
(22)Hanns Möhler, “The GABA System in Anxiety and Depression and Its Therapeutic Potential,” Neuropharmacology 62, no. 1 (2012): 42–53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.08.040.
(23)Crissa L. Guglietti, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Natasha Radhu, Paul B. Fitzgerald, and Paul Ritvo, “Meditation-Related Increases in GABAB Modulated Cortical Inhibition,” Brain Stimulation 6, no. 3 (2013): 397–402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2012.08.005.
(24)Mark A. Hoffman, “Entheogens (Psychedelic Drugs) and the Ancient Mystery Religions,” in Toxicology in Antiquity, ed. Philip Wexler (Cambridge, MA: Academic Press, 2019), 353–362.
(25)Christopher Timmermann, Leor Roseman, Luke Williams, David Erritzoe, Charlotte Martial, Héléna Cassol, Steven Laureys, et al., “DMT Models the Near-Death Experience,” Frontiers in Psychology 9 (2018): 1424, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01424.
(26)Marcie L. King, “The Neural Correlates of Well-being: A Systematic Review of the Human Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Literature,” Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 19, no. 4 (2019): 779–796, https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-019-00720-4.
(27)Andrew B. Newberg and Jeremy Iversen, “The Neural Basis of the Complex Mental Task of Meditation: Neurotransmitter and Neurochemical Considerations,” Medical Hypotheses 61, no. 2 (2003): 282–291, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0306-9877(03)00175-0.
(28)Britta K. Hölzel, Ulrich Ott, Hannes Hempel, Andrea Hackl, Katharina Wolf, Rudolf Stark, and Dieter Vaitl, “Differential Engagement of Anterior Cingulate and Adjacent Medial Frontal Cortex in Adept Meditators and Non-Meditators,” Neuroscience Letters 421, no. 1 (2007): 16–21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2007.04.074.
(29)Tim Lomas, Itai Ivtzan, and Cynthia H. Y. Fu, “A Systematic Review of the Neurophysiology of Mindfulness on EEG Oscillations,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 57 (2015): 401–410, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.09.018.
(30)Anne Hauswald, Teresa Übelacker, Sabine Leske, and Nathan Weisz, “What It Means to Be Zen: Marked Modulations of Local and Interareal Synchronization during Open Monitoring Meditation,” NeuroImage 108 (2105): 265–273, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.12.065.
(31)Richard J. Davidson, “Anterior Cerebral Asymmetry and the Nature of Emotion,” Brain and Cognition 20, no. 1 (1992): 125–151, https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-2626(92)90065-T.
(32)Ido Amihai and Maria Kozhevnikov, “Arousal vs. Relaxation: A Comparison of the Neurophysiological and Cognitive Correlates of Vajrayana and Theravada Meditative Practices,” PloS one 9, no. 7 (2014): e102990, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102990.
(33)Antonio R. Damasio, Descartes’ Error (New York: Random House, 2006).
(34)James A. Russell, “A Circumplex Model of Affect,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39, no. 6 (1980): 1161–1178, https://doi.org/10.1037/h0077714.
(35)Paul Ekman, “An Argument for Basic Emotions,” Cognition and Emotion 6, no. 3–4 (1992): 169–200, https://doi.org/10.1080/02699939208411068.
(36)Rom Harré, The Social Construction of Emotions (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986), 5.
(37)Lisa Feldman Barrett, “Are Emotions Natural Kinds?,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 1, no. 1 (2006): 49, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00003.x.
(38)Aaron T. Beck, “Cognitive Therapy: A 30-Year Retrospective,” American Psychologist 46, no. 4 (1991): 368–375, https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.46.4.368.
(39)Daniel David, Ioana Cristea, and Stefan G. Hofmann, “Why Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Is the Current Gold Standard of Psychotherapy,” Frontiers in Psychiatry 9 (2018): 4, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00004.
(40)Norman Vincent Peale, The Power of Positive Thinking (New York: Random House, 2012).
(41)Tim Lomas, The Positive Power of Negative Emotions (London: Hachette UK, 2016).
(42)Richard A. Emmons and Michael E. McCullough, “Counting Blessings versus Burdens: Experimental Studies of Gratitude and Subjective Well-being,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84, no. 2 (2003): 377–389, 10.1037//0022–3522.214.171.1247.
(43)David J. Chalmers, “Moving Forward on the Problem of Consciousness,” Journal of Consciousness Studies 4, no. 1 (1997): 3–46.
(44)Frank Jackson, “Epiphenomenal Qualia,” Philosophical Quarterly 32, no. 127 (1982): 127, https://doi.org/10.2307/2960077.
(45)Edmund Husserl, Logical Investigations, trans. J. N. Findlay (London: Routledge, 1900).
(46)George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008).
(47)George Lakoff, Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), xiv.
(48)Tim Lomas, “The Spatial Contours of Wellbeing: A Content Analysis of Metaphor in Academic Discourse,” Journal of Positive Psychology 14, no. 3 (2019): 362–376, https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2018.1450437.
(49)Barbara L. Fredrickson, “The Broaden—and—Build Theory of Positive Emotions,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 359, no. 1449 (2004): 1367–1377, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1512.
(50)Benjamin L. Whorf, Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf, ed. John B. Carroll (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1956), 213–214.
(51)Catherine L. Albanese, “The Subtle Energies of Spirit: Explorations in Metaphysical and New Age Spirituality,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 67, no. 2 (1999): 305–325, https://www.jstor.org/stable/1465739.
(52)Ronald Inglehart, Cultural Evolution: People’s Motivations Are Changing, and Reshaping the World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018).
الفصل الخامس: بواعث السعادة
(1)Xiumei Zhu, Sang Eun Woo, Caitlin Porter, and Michael Brzezinski, “Pathways to Happiness: From Personality to Social Networks and Perceived Support,” Social Networks 35, no. 3 (2013): 382–393, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2013.04.005.
(2)Shigehiro Oishi, “Culture and Well-being: Conceptual and Methodological Issues,” in International Differences in Well-being, ed. Ed Diener, John F. Helliwell, and Daniel Kahneman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), 34–69.
(3)John F. Helliwell, Richard Layard, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, World Happiness Report 2021 (New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2021).
(4)John F. Helliwell, Richard Layard, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, World Happiness Report 2020 (New York: Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2020).
(5)Kate Raworth, Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist (London: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2017).
(6)Scott B. Kaufman, Transcend: The New Science of Self-Actualization (New York: Penguin, 2021).
(7)Todd Bridgman, Stephen Cummings, and John Ballard, “Who Built Maslow’s Pyramid? A History of the Creation of Management Studies’ Most Famous Symbol and Its Implications for Management Education,” Academy of Management Learning and Education 18, no. 1 (2019): 81–98, https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2017.0351.
(8)Abraham H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Review 50, no. 4 (1943): 388, https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054346.
(9)Ed Diener, Louis Tay, and David G. Myers, “The Religion Paradox: If Religion Makes People Happy, Why Are So Many Dropping Out?,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101, no. 6 (2011): 1278–1290, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024402.
(11)Kimberlé Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review 43, no. 9 (1991): 1241–1299, https://doi.org/10.2307/1229039.
(12)Sonja Lyubomirsky, Kennon M. Sheldon, and David Schkade, “Pursuing Happiness: The Architecture of Sustainable Change,” Review of General Psychology 9, no. 2 (2005): 111–131, https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-26126.96.36.199.
(13)Nicholas J. Brown and Julia M. Rohrer, “Easy as (Happiness) Pie? A Critical Evaluation of a Popular Model of the Determinants of Well-being,” Journal of Happiness Studies 21 (2020): 1285–1301, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00128-4.
(14)David W. Dowdy, Mark P. Eid, Artyom Sedrakyan, Pedro A. Mendez-Tellez, Peter J. Pronovost, Margaret S. Herridge, and Dale M. Needham, “Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Critical Illness: A Systematic Review of the Literature,” Intensive Care Medicine 31, no. 5 (2005): 611–620, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-005-2592-6.
(15)Kate Hefferon, Positive Psychology and the Body: The Somatopsychic Side to Flourishing (London: McGraw-Hill Education, 2013).
(16)H. Stefan Bracha, “Freeze, Flight, Fight, Fright, Faint: Adaptationist Perspectives on the Acute Stress Response Spectrum,” CNS Spectrums 9, no. 9 (2004): 679–685, https://doi.org/10.1017/s1092852900001954.
(17)Ashley L. Russell, Jeffrey G. Tasker, Aldo B. Lucion, Jenny Fiedler, Carolina D. Munhoz, Tao-yiao John Wu, and Terrence Deak, “Factors Promoting Vulnerability to Dysregulated Stress Reactivity and Stress-Related Disease,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology 30, no. 10 (2018): e12641, https://doi.org/10.1111/jne.12641.
(18)Martin Ljunge, “Migrants, Health, and Happiness: Evidence That Health Assessments Travel with Migrants and Predict Well-being,” Economics and Human Biology 22 (2016): 35–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2016.03.004.
(19)Ed Diener and Micaela Y. Chan, “Happy People Live Longer: Subjective Well-being Contributes to Health and Longevity,” Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being 3, no. 1 (2011): 1–43, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01045.x.
(20)Barbara Ehrenreich, Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America and the World (New York: Granta Books, 2010).
(21)Ping Zhang, Xinzhi Zhang, Jonathan Brown, Dorte Vistisen, Richard Sicree, Jonathan Shaw, and Gregory Nichols, “Global Healthcare Expenditure on Diabetes for 2010 and 2030,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 87, no. 3 (2010): 293–301, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2010.01.026.
(22)Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers, “Happiness Inequality in the United States,” Journal of Legal Studies 37, no. S2 (2008): S33–S79, https://doi.org/10.1086/592004.
(23)Steven Philipp, “Race and the Pursuit of Happiness,” Journal of Leisure Research 32, no. 1 (2000): 121–124, https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2000.11949899.
(24)Shervin Assari, “Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups,” International Journal of Health Policy and Management 7, no. 1 (2018): 1–9, https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2017.90.
(25)Shervin Assari, “Race, Education Attainment, and Happiness in the United States,” International Journal of Epidemiologic Research 6, no. 2 (2019): 76–82, https://doi.org/10.15171/ijer.2019.14.
(26)Shervin Assari, “Combined Racial and Gender Differences in the Longterm Predictive Role of Education on Depressive Symptoms and Chronic Medical Conditions,” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities 4, no. 3 (2017): 385–396, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-016-0239-7; Shervin Assari and Maryam Moghani Lankarani, “Race and Urbanity Alter the Protective Effect of Education but Not Income on Mortality,” Frontiers in Public Health 4 (2016): 100, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2016.00100.
(27)Daniel Kahneman and Angus Deaton, “High Income Improves Evaluation of Life but Not Emotional Well-being,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, no. 38 (2010): 16489–16493, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1011492107.
(28)Tim Lomas, Masculinity, Meditation, and Mental Health (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
(29)Michael E. Addis and James R. Mahalik, “Men, Masculinity, and the Contexts of Help Seeking,” American Psychologist 58, no. 1 (2003): 5–14, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.58.1.5.
(30)Ronald C. Kessler, “Epidemiology of Women and Depression,” Journal of Affective Disorders 74, no. 1 (2003): 5–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0165-0327(02)00426-3.
(31)Ministry of Justice. 2016. Story of the Prison Population: 1993–2016. London: Ministry of Justice.
(32)Office for National Statistics, Alcohol-Specific Deaths in the UK: Registered in 2018 (London: Office for National Statistics, 2019).
(33)Louise C. Hawkley and John T. Cacioppo, “Aging and Loneliness: Downhill Quickly?,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 16, no. 4 (2007): 187–191, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00501.x.
(34)David G. Blanchflower and Andrew J. Oswald, “Is Well-being U-Shaped over the Life Cycle?,” Social Science and Medicine 66, no. 8 (2008): 1733–1749, https://doi.org/10.3386/w12935.
(35)Ottar Hellevik, “The U-Shaped Age-Happiness Relationship: Real or Methodological Artifact?,” Quality and Quantity 51 (2017): 177–197, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-015-0300-3.
(36)Carol Graham and Julia Ruiz Pozuelo, “Happiness, Stress, and Age: How the U Curve Varies across People and Places,” Journal of Population Economics 30 (2017): 225–264, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-016-0611-2.
(37)John E Pachankis and Richard Bränström, “Hidden from Happiness: Structural Stigma, Sexual Orientation Concealment, and Life Satisfaction across 28 Countries,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 86 (2018): 403–415, https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000299.
(38)Francesco Sarracino, “Determinants of Subjective Well-being in High and Low Income Countries: Do Happiness Equations Differ across Countries,” Journal of Socio-Economics 42 (2013): 51–66, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2012.11.006.
(39)Pierre Bourdieu, “The Forms of Capital,” in Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, ed. John G. Richardson (New York: Greenwood, 1986), 241–258.
(40)John F. Helliwell and Richard D. Putnam, “The Social Context of Well-being,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 359, no. 1449 (2004): 1435, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1522.
(41)Kristen Shultz Lee and Hiroshi Ono, “Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-national Analysis of 27 Countries,” Journal of Marriage and Family 74 (2012): 953–972, doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.01001.x.
(42)Ed Diener, Carol L. Gohm, Eunkook Suh, and Shigehiro Oishi, “Similarity of the Relations between Marital Status and Subjective Well-being across Cultures,” Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 31, no. 4 (2000): 419–436, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031004001.
(43)Richard E. Lucas, Andrew E. Clark, Yannis Georgellis, and Ed Diener, “Reexamining Adaptation and the Set Point Model of Happiness: Reactions to Changes in Marital Status,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84, no. 3 (2003): 527–539, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.527.
(44)Shawn Grover and John F. Helliwell, “How’s Life at Home? New Evidence on Marriage and the Set Point for Happiness,” Journal of Happiness Studies 20 (2019): 373–390, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9941-3.
(45)W. Bradford Wilcox and Jeffrey Dew, “Is Love a Flimsy Foundation? Soulmate versus Institutional Models of Marriage,” Social Science Research 39, no. 5 (2010): 687–699, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.05.006.
(46)Markku T. Hyyppä and Juhani Mäki, “Why Do Swedish-Speaking Finns Have Longer Active Life? An Area for Social Capital Research,” Health Promotion International 16, no. 1 (2001): 55–64, https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/16.1.55; Markku T. Hyyppä and Juhani Mäki, “Social Participation and Health in a Community Rich in Stock of Social Capital,” Health Education Research 18, no. 6 (2003): 770–779, https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyf044.
(47)Jessica Burke, Patricia O’Campo, Christina Salmon, and Renee Walker, “Pathways Connecting Neighborhood Influences and Mental Well-being: Socioeconomic Position and Gender Differences,” Social Science and Medicine 68, no. 7 (2009): 1294–1304, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.01.015.
(48)Corina Graif and Stephen A. Matthews, “The Long Arm of Poverty: Extended and Relational Geographies of Child Victimization and Neighborhood Violence Exposures,” Justice Quarterly 34, no. 6 (2017): 1096–1125, https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2016.1276951.
(49)Urie Bronfenbrenner, Ecological Systems Theory (London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1992).
(50)Sarracino, “Determinants of Subjective Well-being.”.
(51)Crick Lund, Alison Breen, Alan J. Flisher, Ritsuko Kakuma, Joanne Corrigall, John A. Joska, Leslie Swartz, and Vikram Patel, “Poverty and Common Mental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review,” Social Science and Medicine 71, no. 3 (2010): 517–528, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.04.027.
(52)Richard E. Lucas, Andrew E. Clark, Yannis Georgellis, and Ed Diener, “Unemployment Alters the Set Point for Life Satisfaction,” Psychological Science 15, no. 1 (2004): 8–13, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2004.01501002.x.
(53)Jianbo Luo, “A Pecuniary Explanation for the Heterogeneous Effects of Unemployment on Happiness,” Journal of Happiness Studies 21 (2020): 2603– 2628, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00198-4.
(54)Berrin Erdogan, Talya N. Bauer, Donald M. Truxillo, and Layla R. Mansfield, “Whistle While You Work: A Review of the Life Satisfaction Literature,” Journal of Management 38, no. 4 (2012): 1038–1083, https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311429379.
(55)Richard A. Easterlin, “Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence,” in Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramovitz, ed. Paul A. David and Melvin W. Reder (New York: Academic Press, 1974), 89–125.
(56)Catriona Miller, “Finding the Golden Egg: Illusions of Happiness in an Age of Consumer Capitalism,” in The Happiness Illusion: How the Media Sold Us a Fairytale, ed. Luke Hockley and Nadi Fadina (London: Routledge, 2015), 89–106.
(57)Daniel W. Sacks, Betsey Stevenson, and Justin Wolfers, “The New Stylized Facts about Income and Subjective Well-being,” Emotion 12, no. 6 (2012): 1181–1187, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029873.
(58)Matthew A. Killingsworth, “Experienced Well-being Rises with Income, Even Above $75,000 per Year,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118, no. 4 (2021): e2016976118, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2016976118.
(59)Ryan Howell and Colleen J. Howell, “The Relation of Economic Status to Subjective Well-being in Developing Countries: A Meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 134, no. 4 (2008): 536–560, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.4.536.
(60)Andrew T. Jebb, Louis Tay, Ed Diener, and Shigehiro Oishi., “Happiness, Income Satiation and Turning Points around the World,” Nature Human Behaviour 2, no. 1 (2018): 33–38, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0277-0.
(61)Andrew E. Clark, Paul Frijters, and Michael A. Shields, “Relative Income, Happiness, and Utility: An Explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and Other Puzzles,” Journal of Economic Literature 46, no. 1 (2008): 95–144, https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.46.1.95.
(62)Eduardo Pérez-Asenjo, “If Happiness Is Relative, against Whom Do We Compare Ourselves? Implications for Labour Supply,” Journal of Population Economics 24, no. 4 (2011): 1411–1442, https://www.jstor.org/stable/41488358.
(63)Richard G. Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better (London: Allen Lane, 2010); John H. Goldthorpe, “Analysing Social Inequality: A Critique of Two Recent Contributions from Economics and Epidemiology,” European Sociological Review 26, no. 6 (2010): 731–44, https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcp046.
(64)Lawrence Mishel and Jori Kandra, CEO Compensation Surged 14% in 2019 to $21.3 Million (Washington DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2020).
(65)“Wage Gap between Bosses and Workers Widens,” Uutiset, July 22, 2019, https://yle.fi/uutiset/osasto/news/wage_gap_between_bosses_an_workers_widens_paper_reports/10888171.
(66)John F. Kennedy, inaugural address, January 20, 1961.
(67)Ruut Veenhoven, “Freedom and Happiness: A Comparative Study in Forty-Four Nations in the Early 1990s,’ in Culture and Subjective Well-being, ed. Ed Diener and Eunkook M. Suh (Dordrecht: Springer, 2000), 259.
(68)Ruut Veenhoven, “Freedom and Happiness: Comparison of 126 Nations in 2006,” paper presented at the Legatum prosperity workshop, June 21–22, London, 2008.
(69)Terry Miller and Anthony Kim, 2016 Index of Economic Freedom (Washington DC: Heritage Foundation, 2016).
(70)Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2020 Methodology (Washington, DC: Freedom House, 2020).
(71)Miller and Kim, 2016 Index of Economic Freedom.
(72)Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay, and Massimo Mastruzzi, Governance Matters VIII: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators 1996–2008 (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009).
(73)Ed Diener, Marissa Diener, and Carol Diener, “Factors Predicting the Subjective Well-being of Nations,” in Culture and Well-being, ed. Ed Diener and Eunkook M. Suh (Dordrecht: Springer, 2009), 43–70.
(74)Dipak K. Gupta, Albert J. Jongman, and Alex P. Schmid, “Creating a Composite Index for Assessing Country Performance in the Field of Human Rights: Proposal for a New Methodology,” Human Rights Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1994): 131–162, https://doi.org/10.2307/762414.
(75)Grant Duncan, “Should Happiness-Maximization Be the Goal of Government?,” Journal of Happiness Studies 11, no. 2 (2010): 165, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9129-y.
(76)Dorota Jasielska, Maciej Stolarski, and Michał Bilewicz, “Biased, Therefore Unhappy: Disentangling the Collectivism-Happiness Relationship Globally,” Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology 49, no. 8 (2018): 1227–1246, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022118784204.
(77)Hidehumi Hitokoto and Yukiko Uchida, “Interdependent Happiness: Theoretical Importance and Measurement Validity,” Journal of Happiness Studies 16, no. 1 (2015): 211–239, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9505-8.
(78)Christopher G. Ellison and Jeffrey Levin, “The Religion-Health Connection: Evidence, Theory, and Future Directions,” Health Education and Behavior 25, no. 6 (1998), 700–720, https://doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500603.
(79)Soyoung Q. Park, Thorsten Kahnt, Azade Dogan, Sabrina Strang, Ernst Fehr, and Philippe N. Tobler, “A Neural Link between Generosity and Happiness,” Nature Communications 8, no. 1 (2017): 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15964.
(80)Michael F. Steger and Patricia Frazier, “Meaning in Life: One Link in the Chain from Religiousness to Well-being,” Journal of Counseling Psychology 52, no. 4 (2005): 574–582, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.2064.
(81)Kenneth Kramer, The Sacred Art of Dying: How World Religions Understand Death (Malwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1988).
(82)Jessica L. Burris, Shannon E. Sauer, and Charles R. Carlson, “A Test of Religious Commitment and Spiritual Transcendence as Independent Predictors of Underage Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems,” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 3, no. 3 (2011): 231–240, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022204.
(83)Darren E. Sherkat and Christopher G. Ellison, “Recent Developments and Current Controversies in the Sociology of Religion,” Annual Review of Sociology 25, no. 1 (1999): 363–394, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.363.
(84)Warren D. TenHouten, Alienation and Affect (London: Taylor and Francis, 2016).
الفصل السادس: تيسير سُبل السعادة
(1)John Stuart Mill, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume X: Essays on Ethics, Religion and Society, ed. John M. Robson and Jack Stillinger (London: Routledge and Kegan, 1986), 146.
(2)Dana Becker and Jeanne Marecek, “Dreaming the American Dream: Individualism and Positive Psychology,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2, no. 5 (2008): 1767–1780, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00139.x.
(3)Grant Duncan, “Should Happiness-Maximization Be the Goal of Government?,” Journal of Happiness Studies 11, no. 2 (2010): 165, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9129-y.
(4)Robert Neelly Bellah, Richard Madsen, William M. Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. Tipton, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life: Updated Edition with a New Introduction (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), xxv.
(5)Tim Lomas, Kate Hefferon, and Itai Ivtzan. 2015. “The LIFE model: A metatheoretical conceptual map for applied positive psychology.” Journal of Happiness Studies 16(5): 1347–1364, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9563-y.
(6)Michael I. Posner and Steven E. Petersen, “The Attention System of the Human Brain,” Annual Review of Neuroscience 13, no. 1 (1990): 25–42, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ne.13.030190.000325.
(7)James H. Austin, Zen and the Brain: Toward an Understanding of Meditation and Consciousness (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998), 69.
(8)Roger Walsh and Shauna L. Shapiro, “The Meeting of Meditative Disciplines and Western Psychology: A Mutually Enriching Dialogue,” American Psychologist 61, no. 3 (2006): 228–229, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003–066X.61.3.227.
(9)William L. Mikulas, “Mindfulness, Self-control, and Personal Growth,” in Psychotherapy, Meditation, and Health, ed. Mauritz G. T. Kwee (London: East-West Publication, 1990), 151–164.
(10)Antoine Lutz, Heleene A. Slagter, John D. Dunne, and Richard J. Davidson, “Attention Regulation and Monitoring in Meditation,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12, no. 4 (2008): 163–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005.
(11)Antonino Raffone and Narayanan Srinivasan, “The Exploration of Meditation in the Neuroscience of Attention and Consciousness,” Cognitive Processing 11, no. 1 (2010): 2, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-009-0354-z.
(12)Jon Kabat-Zinn, “Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Context: Past, Present, and Future,” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 10, no. 2 (2003): 144–156, 145, https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016.
(13)Tenzin Gyatso, “Science at the Crossroads,” Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing 2, no. 2 (2006): 97–99, 98, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2005.12.005.
(14)Jon Kabat-Zinn, “An Outpatient Program in Behavioral Medicine for Chronic Pain Patients Based on the Practice of Mindfulness Meditation: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results,” General Hospital Psychiatry 4, no. 1 (1982): 33–47, https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-8343(82)90026-3.
(15)Willem Kuyken, Ed Watkins, Emily Holden, Kat White, Rod S. Taylor, Sarah Byford, Alison Evans, et al., “How Does Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Work?,” Behaviour Research and Therapy 48, no. 11 (2010): 1105–1112, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20810101.
(16)Tim Lomas, Juan Carlos Medina, Itai Ivtzan, Silke Rupprecht, Rona Hart, and Francisco Jose Eiroa-Orosa, “The Impact of Mindfulness on Well-being and Performance in the Workplace: An Inclusive Systematic Review of the Empirical Literature,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 26, no. 4 (2017): 492–513, https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2017.1308924.
(17)Kabat-Zinn, “Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Context,” 145.
(18)Barbara L. Fredrickson, Michael A. Cohn, Kimberly A. Coffey, Jolynn Pek, and Sandra M. Finkel. “Open Hearts Build Lives: Positive Emotions, Induced through Loving-Kindness Meditation, Build Consequential Personal Resources,”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95, no. 5 (2008): 1045–1062, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013262.
(19)Jean Varenne, Yoga and the Hindu Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).
(20)Holger Cramer, Romy Lauche, Dennis Anheyer, Karen Pilkington, Michael de Manincor, Gustav Dobos, and Lesley Ward, “Yoga for Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials,” Depression and Anxiety 35, no. 9 (2018): 830–843, https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22762.
(21)John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey, “The Intelligence of Emotional Intelligence,” Intelligence 17, no. 4 (1993): 433–442, https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896(93)90010-3.
(22)Nicolás Sánchez-Álvarez, Natalio Extremera, and Pablo Fernández-Berrocal, “The Relation between Emotional Intelligence and Subjective Well-being: A Meta-analytic Investigation,” Journal of Positive Psychology 11, no. 3 (2016): 276–285, https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2015.1058968.
(23)Karen L. Bierman, Robert L. Nix, Mark T. Greenberg, Clancy Blair, and Celene E. Domitrovich, “Executive Functions and School Readiness Intervention: Impact, Moderation, and Mediation in the Head Start REDI Program,” Development and Psychopathology 20, no. 3 (2008) 82143, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000394.
(24)Parizia Velotti, Carlo Garofalo, Antonino Callea, Romola S. Bucks, Terri Roberton, and Michael Daffern, “Exploring Anger among Offenders: The Role of Emotion Dysregulation and Alexithymia,” Psychiatry, Psychology and Law 24, no. 1 (2017): 128–138, https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2016.1164639.
(25)Arla L. Day and Sarah A. Carroll, “Using an Ability-Based Measure of Emotional Intelligence to Predict Individual Performance, Group Performance, and Group Citizenship Behaviors,” Personality and Individual Differences 36, no. 6 (2004): 1443–1458, 1444, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00240-X.
(26)David P. Johnson, David L. Penn, Barbara L. Fredrickson, Piper S. Meyer, Ann M. Kring, and Mary Brantley, “Loving-kindness Meditation to Enhance Recovery from Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia,” Journal of Clinical Psychology 65, no. 5 (2009): 499–509, https://doi.org.
(27)Alex M. Wood, Jeffrey J. Froh, and Adam W. Geraghty, “Gratitude and Well-being: A Review and Theoretical Integration,” Clinical Psychology Review 30, no. 7 (2010): 890–905, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005; Anna L. Boggiss, Nathan S. Consedine, Jennifer M. Brenton-Peters, Paul L. Hofman, and Anna S. Serlachius, “A Systematic Review of Gratitude Interventions: Effects on Physical Health and Health Behaviors,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 135 (2020): 110165, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110165.
(28)Delphine Nelis, Jordi Quoidbach, Moïra Mikolajczak, and Michel Hansenne, “Increasing Emotional Intelligence: (How) Is It Possible?,” Personality and Individual Differences 47, no. 1 (2009): 36–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.046.
(29)Eric L. Ross, Sandeep Vijan, Erin M. Miller, Marcia Valenstein, and Kara Zivin, “The Cost-effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Second-Generation Antidepressants for Initial Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in the United States: A Decision Analytic Model,” Annals of Internal Medicine 171, no. 11 (2019): 785–795, https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-1480.
(30)Hooria Jazaieri, Philippe R. Goldin, and James J. Gross, “Treating Social Anxiety Disorder with CBT: Impact on Emotion Regulation and Satisfaction with Life,” Cognitive Therapy and Research 41, no. 3 (2017): 406–416, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-016-9762-4.
(31)James Griffith and Courtney West, “Master Resilience Training and Its Relationship to Individual Well-being and Stress Buffering among Army National Guard Soldiers,’ Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 40, no. 2 (2013): 140–155, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-013-9320-8.
(32)Chad M. Burton and Laura A. King, “The Health Benefits of Writing about Intensely Positive Experiences,” Journal of Research in Personality 38, no. 2 (2004): 150–163, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00058-8.
(33)Arianna Huffington, The Sleep Revolution: Transforming Your Life, One Night at a Time (New York: Harmony, 2016).
(34)J-Eun Shin and Jung Ki Kim, “How a Good Sleep Predicts Life Satisfaction: The Role of Zero-sum Beliefs about Happiness,” Frontiers in Psychology 9 (2018): 1589, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01589.
(35)Xiaorong Yang, Hui Chen, Suyun Li, Lulu Pan, and Chongqi Jia, “Association of Sleep Duration with the Morbidity and Mortality of Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies,” Heart Lung and Circulation 24 (2015): 1180–1190, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2015.08.005.
(36)N. Jovanović, Anja Podlesek, Umberto Volpe, Elizabeth E. Barrett, Silvia Ferrari, Martina Rojnic Kuzman, P. Wuyts, et al., “Burnout Syndrome among Psychiatric Trainees in 22 Countries: Risk Increased by Long Working Hours, Lack of Supervision, and Psychiatry Not Being First Career Choice,” European Psychiatry 32 (2016): 34–41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.10.007.
(37)Brittany T. MacEwen, Dani MacDonald, and Jamie F. Burr, “A Systematic Review of Standing and Treadmill Desks in the Workplace,” Preventive Medicine 70 (2015): 50–58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.11.011.
(38)US Department of Health and Human Services, The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2018); Donald C. McKenzie, “Markers of Excessive Exercise,” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 24, no. 1 (1999): 66–73, https://doi.org/10.1139/h99-007.
(39)Francesco Sofi, Francesca Cesari, Rosanna Abbate, Gian Franco Gensini, and Alessandro Casini, “Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Health Status: Meta-analysis,” BMJ 337, no. 7671 (2008): 673–665, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a1344; Rosario Ferrer-Cascales, Natalia Albaladejo-Blázquez, Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo, Violeta Clement-Carbonell, Miriam Sánchez-San Segundo, and Ana Zaragoza-Martí, “Higher Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is Related to More Subjective Happiness in Adolescents: The Role of Health-Related Quality of Life,” Nutrients 11, no. 3 (2019): 698, https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030698.
(40)Bonnie A. White, Caroline Horwath, and Tamlin S. Conner, “Many Apples a Day Keep the Blues Away—Daily Experiences of Negative and Positive Affect and Food Consumption in Young Adults,” British Journal of Health Psychology 18, no. 4 (2013): 782–798, https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12021.
(41)Bryant P. H. Hui, Jacky C. K. Ng, Erica Berzaghi, Lauren A. Cunningham-Amos, and Aleksandr Kogan, “Rewards of Kindness? A Meta-analysis of the Link between Prosociality and Well-being,” Psychological Bulletin 146, no. 12 (2020): 1084–1016, https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000298.
(42)“Bring Your Strengths to Life and Live More Fully,” VIA Institute on Character, www.viacharacter.org.
(43)Katherine Dahlsgaard, Christopher Peterson, and Martin E. Seligman, “Shared Virtue: The Convergence of Valued Human Strengths across Culture and History,” Review of General Psychology 9, no. 3 (2005): 203–213, https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-26220.127.116.11.
(44)Denise Quinlan, Nicola Swain, and Dianne A. Vella-Brodrick, “Character Strengths Interventions: Building on What We Know for Improved Outcomes,” Journal of Happiness Studies 13, no. 6 (2012): 1145–1163, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-011-9311-5.
(45)Kaisa Vuorinen, Anne Erikivi, and Lotta Uusitalo-Malmivaara, “A Character Strength Intervention in 11 Inclusive Finnish Classrooms to Promote Social Participation of Students with Special Educational Needs,” Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs 19, no. 1 (2019): 45–57, https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-3802.12423.
(46)Marine Miglianico, Philippe Dubreuil, Paule Miquelon, Arnold B. Bakker, and Charles Martin-Krumm, “Strength Use in the Workplace: A Literature Review,” Journal of Happiness Studies 21, no. 2 (2020): 737–764, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00095-w.
(47)Tim Lomas, “Positive Art: Artistic Expression and Appreciation as an Exemplary Vehicle for Flourishing,” Review of General Psychology 20, no. 2 (2016): 171–182, https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000073.
(48)Maren Rathgeber, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Eva-Maria Schiller, and Heinz Holling, “The Efficacy of Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy and Behavioral Couples Therapy: A Meta-analysis,” Journal of Marital and Family Therapy 45, no. 3 (2019): 447–463, https://doi.org/10.1111/jmft.12336.
(49)Lea Waters, The Strength Switch: How the New Science of Strength-Based Parenting Can Help Your Child and Your Teen to Flourish (New York: Penguin, 2017).
(50)Martin E. Seligman, Randal M. Ernst, Jane Gillham, Karen Reivich, and Mark Linkins, “Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions,” Oxford Review of Education 35, no. 3 (2009): 293–311, https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980902934563.
(51)Darren L. Dunning, Kirsty Griffiths, Willem Kuyken, Catherine Crane, Lucy Foulkes, Jenna Parker, and Tim Dalgleish, “The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Cognition and Mental Health in Children and Adolescents—A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 60, no. 3 (2019): 244–258, https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12980; Pam Gershon and John Pellitteri, “Promoting Emotional Intelligence in Preschool Education: A Review of Programs,” International Journal of Emotional Education 10, no. 2 (2018): 26–41.
(52)Erin Hoare, David Bott, and Justin Robinson, “Learn It, Live It, Teach It, Embed It: Implementing a Whole School Approach to Foster Positive Mental Health and Wellbeing through Positive Education,” International Journal of Wellbeing 7, no. 3 (2017): 56–71, https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v7i3.645.
(53)Anthony Grant and Michael Cavanagh, “Toward a Profession of Coaching: Sixty- Five Years of Progress and Challenges for the Future,” International Journal of Evidence-Based Coaching and Mentoring 2, no. 1 (2004): 1–16.
(54)Kim Cameron and Jane Dutton, eds., Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2003); Fred Luthans, “Positive Organizational Behavior: Developing and Managing Psychological Strengths,” Academy of Management Perspectives 16, no. 1 (2002): 57–72, https://www.jstor.org/stable/4165814.
(55)“Resources for Employers,” American Psychological Association, Center for Organizational Excellence, www.apaexcellence.org/resources/creatinga healthyworkplace.
(56)Bruce Peltier, The Psychology of Executive Coaching: Theory and Application (London: Taylor and Francis, 2011).
(57)Susan M. Sheridan, Emily D. Warnes, Richard J. Cowan, Ariadne V. Schemm, and Brandy L. Clarke, “Family-Centered Positive Psychology: Focusing on Strengths to Build Student Success,” Psychology in the Schools 41, no. 1 (2004): 7–17, 11, https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10134.
(58)Isaac Prilleltensky, Geoffrey Nelson, and Leslea Peirson, “The Role of Power and Control in Children’s Lives: An Ecological Analysis of Pathways toward Wellness, Resilience and Problems,” Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 11, no. 2 (2001): 143–158, 157, https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.616.
(59)Lynn McDonald, Stephe Billingham, Tammy Conrad, Arthur Morgan, O. Nancy, and Estella Payton, “Families and Schools Together (FAST): Integrating Community Development with Clinical Strategies,” Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services 78, no. 2 (1997): 140–155, https://doi.org/10.1606/1044-3894.754.
(60)Geoff Lindsay and Steve Strand, “Evaluation of the National Roll-Out of Parenting Programmes across England: The Parenting Early Intervention Programme (PEIP),” BMC Public Health 13 (2013): 972, doi: 0.1186/1471-2458-13-972.
(61)Lynn McDonald, D. Paul Moberg, Roger Brown, Ismael Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Nydia I. Flores, Melissa P. Burke, and Gail Coover, “After-school Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children,” Children and Schools 28, no. 1 (2006): 25–34, https://doi.org/10.1093/cs/28.1.25.
(62)Geoff Lindsay, Stephen Cullen, and Chris Wellings, Bringing Families and Schools Together: Giving Children in High-Poverty Areas the Best Start at School (London: Save the Children, 2011).
(63)Francesca M. Dimou, David Eckelbarger, and Taylor S. Riall, “Surgeon Burnout: A Systematic Review,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons 222 (2016): 1230–1239, 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2016.03.022.
(64)Robert L. Kahn, Donald M. Wolfe, Robert P. Quinn, J. Diedrick Snoek, and Robert A. Rosenthal, Organizational Stress (New York: Wiley, 1964), 19.
(65)Tammy D. Allen, Kimberly A. French, Soner Dumani, and Kristen M. Shockley, “A Cross-national Meta-analytic Examination of Predictors and Outcomes Associated with Work-Family Conflict,” Journal of Applied Psychology 105, no. 6 (2020): 539–576, https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000442.
(66)Jim Harter, “How Coronavirus Will Change the ‘Next Normal’ Workplace,” Gallup, May 1, 2020, https://www.gallup.com/workplace/309620/coronavirus-change-next-normal-workplace.aspx.
(67)Joey Haden, Laura Casado, Tyler Sonnemaker, and Taylor Borden, “21 Major Companies That Have Announced Employees Can Work Remotely Long-term,” Insider, December 14, 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/companies-asking-employees-to-work-from-home-due-to-coronavirus-2020.
(68)Peggy A. Thoits, “Role-Identity Salience, Purpose and Meaning in Life, and Well-being among Volunteers,” Social Psychology Quarterly 75, no. 4 (2012): 360–384, https://doi.org/10.1177/0190272512459662.
(69)Martin E. Seligman, Tayyab Rashid, and Acacia C Parks, “Positive psychotherapy,” American Psychologist 61, no. 8 (2006): 774–788, 777, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.8.774.
(70)Carrie Draper and Darcy Freedman, “Review and Analysis of the Benefits, Purposes, and Motivations Associated with Community Gardening in the United States,” Journal of Community Practice 18, no. 4 (2010): 458–492, https://doi.org/10.1080/10705422.2010.519682; Michael R. Mosher, 2004. “The community mural and democratic art processes.” Review of Radical Political Economics 36(4): 528–537, https://doi.org/10.1177/0486613404269782.
(71)Aisling Bailey and Jonathan Kingsley, “Connections in the Garden: Opportunities for Wellbeing,” Local Environment 25, no. 11–12 (2020): 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2020.1845637.
(72)Sarah L. Bell, Cassandra Phoenix, Rebecca Lovell, and Benedict W. Wheeler, “Green Space, Health and Wellbeing: Making Space for Individual Agency,” Health and Place 30 (2014): 287–292, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.10.005.
(73)“What Is Well London?,” Well London, www.welllondon.org.uk.
(74)Gemma Phillips, Christian Bottomley, Elena Schmidt, Patrick Tobi, Shahana Lais, Ge Yu, Rebecca Lynch, et al., “Well London: Results of a Cluster Randomised Trial of a Community Development Approach to Improving Health Behaviours and Mental Wellbeing in Deprived Inner-city Neighbourhoods,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 68, no. 7 (2012): 606–614, https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2013-202505.
(75)Janya McCalman, Alexandra McEwan, Komla Tsey, Eunice Blackmore, and Roxanne Bainbridge, “Towards Social Sustainability: The Case of the Family Wellbeing Community Empowerment Education Program,” Journal of Economic and Social Policy 13, no. 2 (2010): 146–172.
(76)Susan Loh, Marcus Foth, Glenda Amayo Caldwell, Veronica Garcia-Hansen, and Mark Thomson, “A More-Than-Human Perspective on Understanding the Performance of the Built Environment,” Architectural Science Review 63, no. 3–4 (2020): 372–383, https://doi.org/10.1080/00038628.2019.1708258.
(77)Ben Hamilton-Baillie, “Shared Space: Reconciling People, Places and Traffic,” Built Environment 34, no. 2 (2008): 161–181, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23289804.
(78)“Inclusive Transport Strategy,” Department for Transport, GOV.UK, July 25, 2018, www.gov.uk/government/publications/shared-space.
(79)Urie Bronfenbrenner, “Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development,” American Psychologist 32, no. 7 (1977): 513–531, 515, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513.
(80)Alejandro Adler Braun, “Gross National Happiness in Bhutan: A Living Example of an Alternative Approach to Progress,” Social Impact Research Experience Journal (Sire) 1 (2009): 1–142, http://repository.upenn.edu/sire.
(81)Benjamin Mason Meier and Averi Chakrabarti, “The Paradox of Happiness: Health and Human Rights in the Kingdom of Bhutan,” Health and Human Rights 18, no. 1 (2016): 193–208. PMID: 27781010.
(82)Glenn Everett, “Measuring National Well-being: A UK Perspective,” Review of Income and Wealth 61, no. 1 (2015): 34–42.
(83)Deborah Mabbett, “The Second Time as Tragedy? Welfare Reform under Thatcher and the Coalition,” Political Quarterly 84, no. 1 (2013): 43–52, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-923X.2013.12003.x.
(84)Sigal Samuel, “Forget GDP—New Zealand Is Prioritizing Gross National Well-being,” Vox, June 8, 2019, https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2019/6/8/18656710/new-zealand-wellbeing-budget-bhutan-happiness.
(85)Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, “Libertarian Paternalism,” American Economic Review 93, no. 2 (2003): 175–179, https://doi.org/10.1257/000282803321947001; Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008).
(86)Anneliese Arno and Steve Thomas, “The Efficacy of Nudge Theory Strategies in Influencing Adult Dietary Behaviour: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis,” BMC Public Health 16, no. 1 (2016): 676, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3272-x.
(87)Damien Grimshaw and Jill Rubery, “Reinforcing Neoliberalism: Crisis and Austerity in the UK,” in A Triumph of Failed Ideas: European Models of Capitalism in the Crisis, ed. Steffen Lehndorff (Brussels: European Trade Union Initiative, 2012), 41–58.
(88)Umair Haque, Betterness: Economics for Humans (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2011).
(89)Ernst F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: Economics as If People Mattered (London: Harper Collins, 1973).
(90)New Economics Foundation, https://neweconomics.org.
(91)Siddhant Issar, “Listening to Black Lives Matter: Racial Capitalism and the Critique of Neoliberalism,” Contemporary Political Theory 20 (2020): 48–71, https://doi.org/10.1057/s41296-020-00399-0.
(92)Malte Klar and Tim Kasser, “Some Benefits of Being an Activist: Measuring Activism and Its Role in Psychological Well-being,” Political Psychology 30, no. 5 (2009): 755–777, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2009.00724.x.
(93)Parissa Ballard, Xinyu Ni, and Nicole Brocato, “Political Engagement and Wellbeing among College Students,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 71 (2020): 101–209, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2020.101209.
(94)Vanessa Sage, “Encountering the Wilderness, Encountering the Mist: Nature, romanticism, and Contemporary Paganism,”Anthropology of Consciousness 20, no. 1 (2009): 27–52, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-3537.2009.01009.x; George Monbiot, Out of the Wreckage: A New Politics for an Age of Crisis (London: Verso Books, 2017).
(95)Jeff Tollefson, “Why Deforestation and Extinctions Make Pandemics More Likely,” Nature 584, no. 7820 (2020): 175–176, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-02341-1.
(96)Harold F. Searles, “Unconscious Processes in Relation to the Environmental Crisis,” Psychoanalytic Review 59, no. 3 (1972): 361–374.
(97)Glenn Albrecht, “Psychoterratic Conditions in a Scientific and Technological World,” in Ecopsychology: Science, Totems, and the Technological Species, ed. Peter H. Kahn, and Patricia H. Hasbach (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012), 250.
(98)Pihkala Panu, “Anxiety and the Ecological Crisis: An Analysis of EcoAnxiety and Climate Anxiety,” Sustainability 12, no. 19 (2020): 7836, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197836.
(99)Martijn Lampert, Sander Metaal, Sheng Liu, and Laura Gambarin, Global Rise in Environmental Concern (Amsterdam: Glocalities, 2019).
(100)Monica Dinu, Giuditta Pagliai, Claudio Macchi, and Francesco Sofi, “Active Commuting and Multiple Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” Sports Medicine 49, no. 3 (2019): 437–452, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-018-1023-0.
(101)Wil Gesler, “Therapeutic Landscapes,” in The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology, ed. Hilary Callan (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2018), https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118924396.wbiea1422.
(102)Colin A. Capaldi, Raelyne L. Dopko, and John M. Zelenski, “The Relationship between Nature Connectedness and Happiness: A Meta-analysis,” Frontiers in Psychology 5 (2014): 976, 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00976; Alison Pritchard, Miles Richardson, David Sheffield, and Kirsten McEwan, “The Relationship between Nature Connectedness and Eudaimonic Well-being: A Meta-analysis,” Journal of Happiness Studies 21, no. 3 (2020): 1145–1167, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-019-00118-6.
(103)Iris A. Lesser, and Carl P. Nienhuis, “The Impact of COVID-19 on Physical Activity Behavior and Well-being of Canadians,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 11 (2020), 3899, 10.3390/ ijerph17113899.
(104)Kelly A. Hackett, Michael C. Ziegler, Jared A. Olson, Jessica Bizub, Melinda Stolley, Aniko Szabo, Elizabeth Heller, and Kirsten M. M. Beyer, “Nature Mentors: A Program to Encourage Outdoor Activity and Nature Engagement among Urban Youth and Families,” Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning 21, no. 1 (2020): 35–52, https://doi.org/10.1080/14729679.2020.1730203; Andrew Stables and Keith Bishop, “Weak and Strong Conceptions of Environmental Literacy: Implications for Environmental Education,” Environmental Education Research 7, no. 1 (2001): 89–97, https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620125643; Bum Jin Park, Yuko Tsunetsugu, Tamami Kasetani, Takahide Kagawa, and Yoshifumi Miyazaki, “The Physiological Effects of Shinrin-yoku (Taking in the Forest Atmosphere or Forest Bathing): Evidence from Field Experiments in 24 Forests across Japan,” Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 15, no. 1 (2010): 18–26, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12199-009-0086-9.
الفصل السابع: مستقبل السعادة
(1)Xiumei Zhu, Sang Eun Woo, Caitlin Porter, and Michael Brzezinski, “Pathways to Happiness: From Personality to Social Networks and Perceived Support,” Social Networks 35, no. 3 (2013): 382–393, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2013.04.005.
(2)Tyler J. VanderWeele, “Can Sophisticated Study Designs with Regression Analyses of Observational Data Provide Causal Inferences?,” JAMA Psychiatry 78, no. 3 (2021): 244–246, https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.2588.
(3)Stephanie Rossouw and Talita Greyling, Big Data and Happiness, GLO Discussion Paper, Series 634, Global Labor Organization, September 2, 2020, https://glabor.org/big-data-and-happiness-a-new-discussion-paper-by-glo-fellows-stephanie-rossouw-and-talita-greyling/; Robb B. Rutledge, Adam Chekroud, and Quentin Huys, “Machine Learning and Big Data in Psychiatry: Toward Clinical Applications,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology 55 (2019): 152–159, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.006; Ahmet Onur Durahim and Mustafa Coşkun, “#iamhappybecause: Gross National Happiness through Twitter Analysis and Big Data,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 99 (2015): 92–105, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162515002024.